Skip to main content

Full text of "Presidential design awards 1988"

See other formats




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 

/ rfjftgft, \ 

P R E S I P E N T I A I 
\^~-^ 9 8 T~ 8 


This publication was produced under a 
cooperative agreement between 
Thomas B. Grooms and the 
Design Arts Program of the 
National Endowment for the Arts. 

John E. Frohnmayer, Chairman 
National Endowment for the Arts 

Randolph McAusland, Director 
Design Arts Program 

Mina Berry man, Assistant Director 
Design Arts Program 

Writers: Nicholas Backlund 
Thomas B. Grooms 

Editor: Marcia Sartwell 

Design: Pat Taylor, Inc. 

ISSN 1049-54 IX 
May 1990 


4 Preface 

5 Letter from President George Bush 

6 Criteria for Jury Evaluation 

7 Presidential Awards For Design Excellence 

8 Presidential Jury Members 

9 Letter from President Ronald Reagan to Award Recipients 

1 Award-Winning Projects and Programs 

3 1 Federal Design Achievement Awards 

32 Achievement Jury Members 

33 Graphics and Industrial Design 
49 Architecture and Interior Design 

65 Landscape Architecture, Urban Design and Planning 

7 1 Engineering 

76 Photo Credits 

77 Index of Award -Winning Projects by Design Discipline 

79 Index of Award-Winning Projects by Federal Department and Agency 


The federal government is the 
nation's single largest builder, 
printer, and user of designed 
products and design services. 
Each year, it spends approxi- 
mately $40 billion on design 
and construction activities. 
Ensuring that the government 
gets the best design is an inte- 
gral part of responsible stew- 
ardship of public resources. 

The Presidential Design 
Awards were established by 
President Reagan in 1 983 to 
help foster exemplary federal 
design. The awards honor 
achievements in the fields of 
architecture, engineering, 
graphic design, historic preser- 
vation, interior design, land- 
scape architecture, industrial 
design, urban design and plan- 
ning. Programs and policies 
stimulating good design, as 
well as design products and 

projects, are eligible for 

All federal employees, as 
well as federal contractors, 
state and local governments, 
and non-profit organizations 
are invited to apply for an 
award. The principal require- 
ments are that the work has 
been authorized, commis- 
sioned, produced, or supported 
by the federal government, and 
has been completed within ten 
years prior to the call for 
entries. The awards are made 
every four years and are 
administered by the Design 
Arts Program of the National 
Endowment for the Arts as part 
of its ongoing Federal Design 
Improvement Program. 

This book honors the 1988 
design award recipients. In rec- 
ognizing these design projects 
and programs, the Arts Endow- 
ment seeks to educate federal 
administrators and the general 
public about the value of good 
design. The design problem, 
process, and solution are 
explained to help readers bet- 
ter understand the role of 
design as a management and 
communication tool. Private 
enterprise need not be the 
only beneficiary of the invest- 
ment in good design; quality 
design can similarly assist fed- 
eral agencies in accomplishing 
their missions. 

The awards were selected 
through a two-stage jury 
process. The first round was 
undertaken by four subjuries 
comprised of professionals 
from architecture and interior 
design, engineering design, 
graphics and industrial design, 
and landscape architecture, 
urban design and planning. 
These juries reviewed more 
than 500 entries from 64 fed- 
eral departments and agencies. 

Sixty-eight projects ranging 
from U.S. embassies to graphic 
standards manuals were 
selected to receive Federal 
Design Achievement Awards, 
the Arts Endowment's own 
highest award for design. 

The 68 projects awarded 
Federal Design Achievement 
Awards in the first round then 
became eligible for a Presiden- 
tial award. A second jury rec- 
ommended that ten of these 
projects receive a Presidential 
Award for Design Excellence; 
these were presented in a 
White House ceremony in the 
Indian Treaty Room on Novem- 
ber 10, 1988. 

The federal government is a 
major player in American 
design; as such it should also 
be a leader in the design com- 
munity. Through the Federal 
Design Improvement Program, 
initiated by President Nixon in 
1972 and supported by each 
successive president, the Arts 
Endowment is committed to 
helping agencies achieve the 
highest standards of design. We 
are proud to play an active role 
in fostering design excellence 
and to recognize those individ- 
uals responsible for fulfilling 
the public trust through quality 
in federal design. 

John E. Frohnmayer 

Randolph McAusland 
Director, Design Arts Program 

4 1988 Presidential Design Awards 




November 20, 1989 

From our earliest days as a nation, our leaders have 
been aware of the need for quality Federal design in 
government buildings, programs, and products. George 
Washington participated in the design and planning of 
our Nation's Capital, and the City of Washington is 
splendid evidence that the benefits of thoughtful, 
deliberate design are timeless. Today, Federal design 
projects continue to transform visionary concepts into 
reality, producing buildings, landscapes, and products 
that meet human needs by combining performance with 
inspiration and utility with art. 

The Federal Government is fortunate to have many 
talented professionals who design a wide variety of 
subject matter — from office buildings to postage 
stamps — with attention to the finest detail. I 
commend the winners of the 1988 Presidential Design 
Awards and the Federal Design Achievement Awards 
for using their skill and vision to make valuable con- 
tributions to excellence in American design. 

The Federal Design Improvement Program represents a 
commitment to improving design in all areas of Federal 
activity. The projects described in these pages are 
prologue to the work ahead. 

1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



The undertaking must make a 
contribution that improves the 
federal government's ability to 
fulfill its mission. 


The undertaking should estab- 
lish exemplary design prac- 
tices, standards, or guidelines 
that can serve as models for 
federal design activities. 


The undertaking should be 
cost-efficient on a life-cycle 
basis and should demonstrate 
careful design and planning 
without sacrificing perfor- 
mance or quality. 


The undertaking must demon- 
strate aesthetic sensibility and 
be appropriate in image, form, 
and context. 


The undertaking must demon- 
strate a high level of technical 
and functional proficiency in 
all aspects of performance. 



Frank Stanton, Chair 
New York, NY 
Corporate Executive 

Florence Knoll Bassett 
Coconut Grove, FL 
Architect, Interior Designer 

Claire Bogaard 
Pasadena, CA 
Historic Preservationist 

Henry Cobb 
New York, NY 

Lois Craig 
Cambridge, MA 
Design Educator, Writer 

Niels Diffrient 
Ridgefield, CT 
Industrial Designer 

Joan Goody 
Boston, MA 
Architect, Urban Designer 

Daniel Kiley 

Charlotte, VT 

Architect, Landscape Architect, 

Urban Designer 

Peter Masters 
Bethesda, MD 
Graphic Designer 

Mario Salvadori 
New York, NY 
Civil Engineer 

Barbara Stauffacher Solomon 
San Francisco, CA 
Architect, Landscape Architect, 

Donald Stull 
Boston, MA 
Architect, Urban Designer 

Leila Vignelli 
New York, NY 
Architect, Interior Designer, 
Graphic/Industrial Designer 

8 1988 Presidential Design Awards 



November 9, 1988 

It is a great pleasure to congratulate every recipient of 
the 1988 Presidential Awards for Design Excellence. 

We do well to honor and recognize meritorious examples 
of Federal design such as yours, because government's 
success depends on its performance and ability to inspire. 
Good design reveals our values and the importance we 
place on these projects, and your example will surely 
encourage others to emulate them. 

In the fields of architecture, interior and industrial 
design, landscape architecture and environmental 
planning, and visual communications, the Federal 
government currently is the largest single user of 
design services. The public trust requires that we 
use our resources prudently and well, striving for 
fine design that combines cost-effectiveness with 
problem -solving and beauty. 

Each of the 10 winning projects in this year's 
Presidential Design Awards is a model of leadership 
in these areas. I am happy to commend the devotion 
of each designer and the foresight of the Federal 
departments and agency administrators involved. You 
have set a positive example for both government and 
the private sector, and the American people are proud 
and grateful. 

God bless you, and God bless America. 


( <s&4f~-~ 

9 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



Vietnam Veterans Memorial 
Washington, DC 

Although initially controver- 
sial, the design of the Vietnam 
Veterans Memorial in Constitu- 
tion Gardens on the Washing- 
ton Mall has withstood the test 
of time, and it is now the most 
visited monument in a city that 
is full of them. "The Wall," as 
the monument is commonly 
known, has become the 
national focal point for honor- 
ing those who died during the 
Vietnam conflict. The power 
and beauty inherent in its 
design are evidenced by its 
emotional effect on all Ameri- 
cans who visit, regardless of 
their position on the war. 

The design for the monu- 
ment was the result of an open 
competition sponsored by the 
Vietnam Veterans Memorial 
Fund, a private, non-profit 
organization of American citi- 
zens. The design brief called 
for a memorial "reflective in 
character, in harmony with its 
surroundings— especially the 
national memorials— and one 
that contains the names of all 
those who died or remain 
missing." The winning design 
called for two black granite 
walls in the form of a "V" upon 
which the names of more than 
58,000 Americans were to be 
inscribed in chronological 
order of their deaths. Today, 
visitors start at one end of the 
"V" and proceed down an 
inclined ramp as the wall of 
names rises before them. 
Across from the wall, atop a 
grassy knoll, is the sculpture 
"Three Soldiers," which 
depicts three Vietnam-era fight- 
ing men. 

The ingenuity of the monu- 
ment's design is evident, how- 
ever, as the highly polished 
marble reflects the surrounding 
trees and monuments as well 
as the visitors in front of it; the 

visitor is virtually drawn into 
the monument through the 
very act of reading and walk- 
ing. The peaceful nature of the 
monument and special ambi- 
ance created by the enclosing 
wings of the "V" invite reflec- 
tion on the nation's collective 
loss and the sacrifice made by 
nearly 60,000 individuals. 

The success of the Vietnam 
Veterans Memorial was made 
possible through the close col- 
laboration of the Vietnam Vet- 
erans Memorial Fund, the 
National Park Service, the 
National Capital Planning Com- 
mission, the Commission of Fine 
Arts, and the Design Arts Pro- 
gram of the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts, all of which 
came to share the vision of its 
designer, Maya Ying Lin. The 
federal government provided 
the 2.2-acre memorial grounds 
and is responsible for mainte- 
nance, but private funds were 
used exclusively to pay for the 
construction of the memorial. 


U.S. Department of the Interior. 

National Park Service, 

Washington, DC 
National Endowment for the 

Arts, Design Arts Program, 

Washington, DC 
Vietnam Veterans Memorial 

Fund, McLean, VA 
Maya Ying Lin, New York, NY 
Cooper-Lecky Architects, 

Washington, DC 
Frederick E. Hart. Markham. VA 

1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



International Ultraviolet Explorer Program 
Goddard Space Flight Center 

The International Ultraviolet 
Explorer (IUE) program, estab- 
lished by a consortium consist- 
ing of the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration 
(NASA), the United Kingdom, 
and the European Space 
Agency, is a landmark accom- 
plishment that joins high tech- 
nology with international 
cooperation in the pursuit of 
knowledge. The system is com- 
posed of an orbiting satellite 
and two ground stations— one 
located in Greenbelt, Mary- 
land, and the other near 
Madrid, Spain. Despite the fact 
that data is transmitted from 
outer space, the ground sta- 
tions were designed to be used 
and operated in much the 
same way as typical astronomi- 
cal observatories, making these 
facilities useable by a larger 
segment of the scientific 

Qualified astronomers are 
allowed access to either of the 
ground stations for a set 
amount of time rather than for 
the completion of a specified 
task. This arrangement ensures 
that users will adequately pre- 
pare themselves and make the 
most efficient use of their allot- 
ted time. Since becoming fully 
operational, the IUE is the 
most productive instrument of 
its kind in the world. The U.S. 
ground station operates for 16 
hours each day and the Euro- 
pean station for eight hours. 
Because data processing and 
storage capabilities are located 
on the ground rather than on 
board the satellite, actual data 
collection on the IUE occurs 
during 70 percent of the satel- 
lite's operational time, as com- 
pared with 20 to 25 percent 
for ground-based telescopes. 

The satellite was launched 
into a geosynchronous 

orbit, meaning that it circles 
the earth around the equator 
at a speed that matches 
the earth's rotation, and was 
intended to discern stars and 
galaxies of the 12th magnitude. 
The IUE has proven to be even 
more effective than its design- 
ers had foreseen. Capable of 
discerning phenomena of the 
1 7th magnitude, several hun- 
dred times fainter than what is 
visible to the naked eye, it was 
originally intended to last for 
an estimated maximum of five 
years. Today, the IUE has been 
operating efficiently for over a 
decade. But the truest measure 
of this program's success is the 
breadth and quality of the 
information it relays back to 

Although the IUE has 
already surpassed its original 
lifespan by five years, it is 
equipped with sufficient back- 
up systems— should the pri- 
mary systems fail— to continue 
its mission for a long time to 
come. NASA officials and mem- 
bers of the scientific commu- 
nity have praised the IUE 
program, not only for the 
wealth of previously unknown 
information it has made possi- 
ble, but also for the useful 
nature of those data. 


National Aeronautics and 

Space Administration, 

Goddard Space Flight Center. 

Greenbelt. MD 
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. 

Chilton, Didcot. Oxfordshire, 

Great Britain 
European Space Research and 

Technology Centre, 

Noordwijk, Netherlands 

1 3 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 

1 4 1988 Presidential Design Awards 



Southwest Corridor Project 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Conceived, designed, and con- 
structed over a thirteen-year 
period at a cost of $747 mil- 
lion, Boston's Southwest Corri- 
dor Project is an outstanding 
example of thoughtful urban 
design and efficient land-use 
management. The project con- 
sists of a 4.7-mile depressed 
transit and rail right-of-way, 
eight new stations, and a con- 
tinuous linear park that have 

been sensitively woven into 
the urban fabric of Boston. 

The project had its genesis in 
the late 1 960s when the con- 
struction of a new roadway, 
envisioned as the last link in 
Boston's interstate highway 
system, was proposed to 
replace a dilapidated elevated 
railway. Public opposition to 
the proposal was united and 
vociferous. In response to the 
public outcry, the governor 
placed a moratorium on new 
highway construction in 1971. 
In the wake of the moratorium, 
urban planners undertook an 
environmental impact study 
that outlined the construction 
of a new mass transit extension 
along the same corridor as the 
defeated roadway. The new 
plan provided for open spaces 
and appropriate land-use con- 
cepts based on the needs of the 
communities along the route. 

The success of the Southwest 
Corridor Project can be attrib- 
uted to a comprehensive, 
system-wide design strategy 
that was the result of extensive 
public involvement throughout 
the planning process. The 
design strategy took the form 
of a "master plan" that pro- 
vided the dozen or so design 
consultants with an overall 
contextual framework that 
organized the various compo- 
nents and established guide- 
lines that assured a unified 
direction and system-wide con- 
tinuity to the project. 

Design guidelines were 
reviewed by the communities 
along the corridor and repre- 
sented one of the most inten- 
sive public participation 
projects in the history of the 
state. In addition, a special 
career-training program was set 
up to involve local high school 
students in the design and 

engineering disciplines 
required for the project. 

This exhaustive planning 
process demonstrated an 
enlightened approach to trans- 
portation planning. It consid- 
ered the broad issues of urban 
form and quality of life, in addi- 
tion to the specific architec- 
tural and engineering 
requirements. Realizing that 
such a project would have a 
dramatic impact on the physi- 
cal and economic future of Bos- 
ton, the designers strove to 
create major public works 
projects along the route that 
would aspire to the best tradi- 
tions of civic design. 

Ridership on the line is up 
twenty percent since the inau- 
guration of the Southwest Cor- 
ridor Project. Its open parkland 
with biking and jogging paths 
is widely used by area resi- 
dents. The convenience and 
ease of access fostered by the 
new stations has made the area 
along the corridor more desir- 
able as a neighborhood and sig- 
nificantly increased land 
values. The effective use of fed- 
eral and state funds has 
resulted in an exemplary 
project that fulfills the goals set 
forth by the Urban Mass Trans- 
portation Administration. In its 
social vision, extensive plan- 
ning procedures, as well as its 
design and engineering, the 
Southwest Corridor Project is 
an outstanding model of con- 
temporary urban design. 


U.S. Department of Transportation. 

Urban Mass Transportation 


Cambridge, MA 
Massachusetts Bay 

Transportation Authority. 

Boston, MA 
Stull and Lee, Inc., Boston, MA 

1 5 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 

6 1988 Presidential Design Awards 



National Gallery of Art 
Washington, DC 

As befits a national museum, 
the National Gallery of Art has 
established and maintained a 
consistent degree of excellence 
in exhibition and graphic 
design. In the presentation of 
exhibits of paintings, sculpture, 
prints, drawings, and the deco- 
rative arts, the National Gallery 
has upheld the highest stan- 
dards of art historical integrity 
while never alienating its pri- 
mary constituency: the general 

Painstaking care and atten- 
tion to detail are everywhere 
apparent in gallery-sponsored 
exhibitions. From the creation 
of installation and viewing 
environments to supplemen- 
tary informational graphics and 
companion publications, the 
gallery has upheld a standard 
of design excellence that is rec- 
ognized around the world. 
From 1977 to 1987, its staff 
organized more than 200 exhi- 
bitions whose content, pre- 
sentation, and cultural rele- 
vance have been praised by 
scholars, critics, art historians, 
and tourists alike. 

The National Gallery is com- 
mitted to the integration of the 
art object into the museum 
environment, a task that often 
puts its staff to the test. A case 
in point was "The Treasure 
Houses of Britain: Five Hun- 
dred Years of Private Patronage 
and Art Collecting," one of the 
gallery's most successful shows 
to date. The exhibition sought 
to document the complex his- 
tory of collecting, patronage, 
and connoisseurship repre- 
sented by the great houses of 
Britain and the objects they 
contain. Such an ambitious 
goal required a sophisticated 
and innovative installation, but 
slavish copies of house interi- 
ors were inappropriate and 

prohibitively expensive. 

For three years, the curator 
and designers worked together 
to research not only the his- 
tory of the objects to be pre- 
sented but also their social, 
historical, and cultural context. 
The resulting exhibition was a 
rich synthesis of paintings, fur- 
niture, decorative arts, period 
wall coverings, and colors that 
evoked the feeling of the interi- 
ors of these homes. Not only 
did this approach display the 
objects to best effect, but it also 
resulted in an exhibition that 
was united by themes and 
ideas, and not merely a succes- 
sion of period rooms. The suc- 
cess of "Treasure Houses," 
however, cannot be gauged in 
terms of attendance alone, for 
its design had positive implica- 
tions that resounded through- 
out the museum world and 
influenced subsequent exhibi- 
tions at other museums. 

An integral part of any exhi- 
bition at the National Gallery is 
the informational text and 
images that accompany the 
objects. The graphic design 
department has become a 
world leader in the application 
of vertical silk-screened graph- 
ics. It has developed and imple- 
mented a graphic system that 
allows for collateral text to be 
highly legible, even to those 
constrained to wheelchair 
level, and yet not interfere 
with the presentation of the 
artistic material. The depart- 
ment is also responsible for 
creating the interior and exte- 
rior banners that announce 
exhibitions to the public, direc- 
tional and informational 
signage, posters, and photomu- 
rals. Dedication to excellence 
in these areas has increased 
public awareness of the 
National Gallery's exhibit ons 

and ensured that visitors to the 
gallery can absorb the supple- 
mental information that accom- 
panies every exhibition, thus 
enriching the viewer's experi- 

Accompanying each exhibi- 
tion, and as part of its ongoing 
educational efforts, the 
National Gallery publishes 
exhibition catalogues and 
books that serve as documenta- 
tion of the exhibits and as valu- 
able resource materials. Two 
publications of special note are 
American Furniture from the 
Kaufman Collection and 
Piranesi: Early Architectural 
Fantasies. Produced by the Edi- 
tors Office, these books docu- 
ment and interpret art 
historical research as fully as 
possible in publication form 
and represent the gallery to 
both the general public and the 
scholarly world. Often, as was 
the case with Piranesi, special 
production techniques are 
employed to reveal the intrica- 
cies and subtleties of a given 
medium. Or, as was the case 
with the Kaufman book, schol- 
arly text and specially commis- 
sioned photographs are com- 
bined to create a document 
valuable to the serious student 
or to the interested layperson. 

Examples of the quality that 
can result when high standards 
of design integrity are pressed 
into the service of the public 
interest, the National Gallery's 
exhibition and graphic design 
programs are valuable models 
for an array of communication 


National Gallery of Art, 
Office of Design and 
Installation, and 
Editors Office. 
Washington, DC 

7 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 

lb ON«« 

TotoomW^tSJd. © 



O'Hare Extension Rapid Transit Line 
Chicago, Illinois 


Urban mass transit systems 
defeat their intended purpose if 
they are not appealing to the 
public. A 7.6-mile addition to a 
pre-existing inner city line, the 
O'Hare Extension Rapid Transit 
Line serves as a beacon to 
urban planners and transit 
authorities across the United 
States. The primary purposes of 
the extension were to link 
O'Hare International Airport to 
downtown Chicago and to 
enable greater access to the ter- 
minal for local residents and 
visitors. In addition to accom- 
plishing its stated goal, the 
O'Hare Extension has fostered 
new economic development 
and created thousands of jobs 
along its route. 

Despite the fact that O'Hare 
International Airport is one of 
the most heavily used airports 
in the country, its distance 
from metropolitan Chicago 
made it accessible only by 
plane or by automobile. With 
the opening of the new, $ 1 98 
million rail link in September 
1984, the travel time between 
downtown Chicago and 
O'Hare was reduced to a thirty- 
three minute trip. Rail access to 
the airport significantly 
reduced traffic congestion at 
the terminals and conse- 
quently reduced automobile 
accidents and exhaust fumes. 
The new service also resulted 
in a marked increase in com- 
muter ridership on the entire 
rapid transit line. 

The rail link demonstrates 
how effectively the public 
interest can be served when 
imaginative design is combined 
with enlightened and effective 
transportation planning. In the 
mid-fifties, the City of Chicago 
had the foresight to designate 
the median strip on the Ken- 
nedy Expressway, which leads 

from the city to the airport, for 
the construction of a rail link 
and four stations. That the 
O'Hare Extension has proven 
so successful is due in large 
part to the initial design of the 
system. Apart from the sys- 
tem's efficiency, patrons have 
responded favorably to the aes- 
thetic qualities of the stations, 
further encouraging ridership. 
While the stations share a com- 
mon access and circulation 
scheme, each one has been 
given its own separate architec- 
tural character. The stop at 
Harlem Avenue is known for 
its glass bridge, the Cum- 
berland Station for its domed 
entry, the River Road Station 
for its skylit escalators and plat- 
forms, and the O'Hare terminal 
for its luminous, glass-block 


U.S. Department of Transportation. 

Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, Region V. 

Chicago, IL 
City of Chicago, 

Department of Public Works, 

Chicago, IL 
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, 

Chicago. IL 
Perkins 8. Will, Chicago, IL 
Metz, Train, Youngren, Chicago, IL 
Murphy/|ahn, Chicago, IL 

1 9 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


Pennsylvania Avenue Plan 
Pennsylvania Avenue Development 


w t jr - \ 

In the wake of the urban strife 
that afflicted so many Ameri- 
can cities in the 1 960s, Wash- 
ington's downtown business 
district was robbed of its 
former vitality and left a for- 
lorn, inhospitable shell. Once a 
bustling commercial center, 
Pennsylvania Avenue had 
given way to seedy enterprises, 
boarded up buildings, and 
decaying public amenities. The 
heart of the nation's capital had 
taken on a character more 
appropriate to a "strip" than to 
America's main street. 

In 1972, the Pennsylvania 
Avenue Development Corpora- 
tion was established by an act 
of Congress and charged with 
formulating and implementing 

a comprehensive plan to 
develop Pennsylvania Avenue 
as a vital focus of activity in 
downtown Washington. The 
rejuvenated area would serve 
as a symbolic ceremonial pas- 
sage between the Capitol and 
the White House, effectively 
uniting the federal city with 
the private city. 

Now, seventeen years after 
the project began, Pennsylva- 
nia Avenue has developed into 
a national example of creative, 
mixed-use urban renewal. The 
Corporation, guided by its own 
planning, design, and land 
acquisition policies, has trans- 
lated its objectives into a stun- 
ning metropolitan landscape. 
The careful process through 
which the Corporation's goals 
were realized has resulted in a 
public/private partnership of 
unparalleled success. The $130 
million invested by the federal 
government in the area's pub- 
lic spaces and historic buildings 
has spurred $1.3 billion in pri- 
vate investment. 

The Corporation's extensive 
design program has, from the 
outset, stressed a strong but 
flexible urban design framework 
in which historic preservation, 
a variety of architectural styles, 
and public improvements can 
harmoniously coexist and com- 
plement the magnificent vistas 
laid out in Pierre L'Enfant's plan 
for the city. Uniform cornice 
lines on new buildings, an open 
plaza, continuous rows of wil- 
low oaks, and wide brick side- 
walks all provide an appropriate 
setting from which to view the 
city along this grand avenue. 
The integration of a continuous 
sidewalk system joins six new 
parks, which feature a variety of 
activities ranging from perform- 
ing arts and ice skating to read- 
ing and sunning. 

Through its ability to both 
encourage and control private 
development along the avenue, 
the Corporation has been able 
to foster the commercial vital- 
ity necessary to the project's 
success while respecting the 
essence of historic Washington. 
The resulting corridor is an 
attractive and viable mixed-use 
environment that features 
hotels, restaurants, theaters, art 
galleries, offices, shops, and 
soon more than 1,000 residen- 
tial units. 

During the two-year plan- 
ning stage prior to the Corpora- 
tion's formation, extensive 
participation was solicited from 
citizens, merchants, and public 
interest groups who shared a 
concern for the future of down- 
town Washington. Advisory 
committees were formed to 
deal with specific concerns and 
help formulate creative solu- 
tions. Open public meetings 
were called whenever the Cor- 
poration anticipated significant 
changes to the original plan. In 
this way, the entire community 
was involved in shaping the 
final solution. 

Slated for completion in 
1992, the Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue Plan demonstrates that 
America's urban resources can 
be effectively reinvigorated and 
preserved for the enjoyment of 
future generations. 


Pennsylvania Avenue 

Development Corporation, 

Washington, DC 
Sasaki Associates. Inc., 

Watertown, MA 
Grenald Associates Ltd.. 

Narbeth, PA 

Washington, DC 
Herbert S. Levinson, 

New Haven, CT 

2 1 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 




2 2 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



Boxley Valley Land-Use Plan 
National Park Service 

When the National Park Ser- 
vice (NPS) incorporated the 
Buffalo River into its national 
rivers system in 1 972, it was 
able to bring under federal pro- 
tection one of America's most 
spectacular free-flowing 
streams. But soon after the 
acquisition, it became apparent 
that NPS guidelines were 
unable to deal effectively with 
preserving the area because 
part of it was still privately 
owned and actively used for 
farming. Realizing that a new 
method of assessing land-use 
requirements and priorities 
was needed to best preserve 
the landscape, NPS developed 

the Boxley Valley Land-Use 
Plan— a unique management 
program that successfully pro- 
motes a long-term public/ 
private partnership. 

The Boxley Valley is located 
within the Buffalo River pre- 
serve and is one of the most 
remarkable "cultural" land- 
scapes in north central Arkan- 
sas. Characterized by gently 
rolling hills, small stands of 
hardwood, a community ceme- 
tery, stone houses, and log 
barns, it is emblematic of a rap- 
idly disappearing way of Amer- 
ican life. Due to complex 
patterns of land ownership in 
the area, a flexible plan was 
called for that would best pro- 
tect the interests of the local 
owners while promoting 
access for the public and main- 
tenance of the natural 

After soliciting and analyzing 
comments from the local resi- 
dents, an interdisciplinary 
team composed of specialists in 
land-use planning, landscape 
architecture, cultural and natu- 
ral resources, and park man- 
agement architects was formed 
to address the broad range of 
planning issues posed by Box- 
ley Valley. The primary goal of 
the plan was to allow for the 
continuation of traditional agri- 
culture while safeguarding the 
riverbanks and water quality in 
the Buffalo National River. Rel- 
evant data about the primary 
resources— geological, archaeo- 
logical, historical, and visual- 
were generated and mapped 
on a series of overlays. The 
overlays were synthesized into 
a management districts map 
that identified appropriate 
areas for traditional land uses. 
This provided a resource-based 
guide for developing alterna- 
tive management solutions. 

Traditionally, NPS manages 
landscapes to prevent change 
in "cultural" landscapes or to 
allow "natural" change in natu- 
ral areas. Since Boxley Valley 
included both natural 
resources as well as a living 
community, a more flexible 
plan was needed. The final 
land-use plan called for the 
incorporation of selective natu- 
ral resource preservation, tradi- 
tional historic preservation, 
and controlled private use. 
This allowed seemingly contra- 
dictory objectives to be real- 
ized simultaneously. 

Implementation of the Box- 
ley Valley Land-Use Plan over 
the next decade will substan- 
tially reduce the costs of main- 
taining the area. The public/ 
private nature of the plan will 
allow individuals and families 
to rehabilitate and operate the 
valley's 200 historic farm build- 
ings and pasture lands without 
adversely affecting the natural 
resources of the area. The plan 
also advocates a proposal to 
resell or lease federal farm- 
lands, with restrictions, to pri- 
vate parties. The income 
generated will help offset man- 
agement costs. By adapting its 
procedures to respond to the 
special circumstances posed by 
Boxley Valley, the National 
Park Service has demonstrated 
its sensitivity to both the con- 
cerns of the local community 
and to the interests of the gen- 
eral public which it serves. 


U.S. Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Denver Service Center, 
Denver, CO 

U.S. Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Buffalo National River, 
Harrison, AR 

23 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


24 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



Sunshine Skyway Bridge 
Tampa-St. Petersburg, Florida 

Enormity of scale, even in engi- 
neering projects, can be 
achieved gracefully and eco- 
nomically, as the Sunshine Sky- 
way Bridge eloquently proves. 
The four-and-one-quarter mile 
bridge spans Tampa Bay and 
connects the communities of 
Tampa and St. Petersburg. The 
bridge functions not only as a 
vital link in the Interstate High- 
way system but as a contribu- 
tion to the aesthetics, utility, 
and safety of bridge design and 
engineering in the United 

Plans for the bridge were 
begun in 1981, following a 
shipping accident the previous 
year that damaged the existing 
bridge. From the outset of this 
project, engineers, contractors, 
designers, and state and federal 
officials worked in close coop- 
eration, assuring that the struc- 
tural and aesthetic goals of the 
bridge would not be compro- 
mised. The bridge itself is a 
cable-stayed concrete span that 
offers a dramatic, almost sculp- 
tural, silhouette. A single plane 
of stays located in the center of 
the roadway connects the sup- 
port towers to the deck. This 
practical solution also offers 
motorists unobstructed views 
of the dramatic seascapes to 
either side of the bridge. 

At 1,200 feet, the central 
span of the Sunshine Skyway 
Bridge is the longest cable- 
stayed concrete span in the 
Americas. Made possible 
through the combination of 
cable-stayed suspension and 
innovative precast, pre- 
stressed, segmental construc- 
tion, the bridge contains 2,600 
precast elements, 180,000 
cubic yards of concrete, 20 mil- 
lion pounds of steel, and nearly 
5.4 million feet of post- 
tensioning cables. Its two 

support masts rise 43 1 feet 
above the water. The new bridge 
has added a vital 25 feet of addi- 
tional clearance for marine traf- 
fic passing underneath, and the 
two main piers were designed 
to safely withstand a ship 
impact of up to 12 million 
pounds. The twin 40-foot road- 
ways allow for two lanes of 
travel and a ten-foot shoulder 
in each direction. Drivers now 
save 40 miles of travel by cross- 
ing the bay on the Sunshine 
Skyway Bridge. 

The Sunshine Skyway's 
design incorporates precau- 
tions to ensure its preservation 
into the future. All embedded 
structural elements were 
epoxy-coated, and post- 
tensioning ducts were either 
steel epoxy-coated, or polyeth- 
ylene. Stay pipes received 
three protective coatings, and 
concrete sealer was applied to 
all concrete surfaces. The $ 1 1 4 
million project, requiring over 
a million man-hours of labor, 
has had an effect that tran- 
scends its function of bridging 
Tampa Bay. The successful and 
economical resolution of tech- 
nical challenges in the Sun- 
shine Skyway has ushered a 
new era of bridge design into 
American civil engineering. 
Cable-stayed bridges with 
shorter main spans of 640 feet, 
once thought to be economi- 
cally unfeasible, are now being 
built in several locations. 


U.S. Department of Transportation, 

Federal Highway Administration. 

Bridge Division. Washington. DC 
State of Florida. Department of 

Transportation, Tallahassee, FL 
Figg and Muller Engineers, Inc.. 

Tallahassee. FL 

25 1988 Presidential Design Awards 

26 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



Delaware Aqueduct Renovation 
Lackawaxen, Pennsylvania, and 
Minisink Ford, New York 

When old structures deterio- 
rate, the immediate dictates of 
utility often conflict with the 
desire for historic preservation. 
The Delaware Aqueduct, com- 
pleted in 1 848, is the earliest 
surviving work of John A. Roe- 
bling, an engineer and designer 
who later designed the Brook- 
lyn Bridge. When the National 
Park Service acquired the aque- 
duct in 1980, it had fallen into 
disrepair following years of 
neglect and was closed to all 

In response to a desire to pre- 
serve the historic structure, an 
American Civil Engineering 
Landmark, a plan was devised 
to adapt the original structure 
for vehicular use. The chal- 
lenge that faced the designers 
was to modify the aqueduct— 
originally designed to carry a 
uniform load of canal water— to 
enable it to accommodate con- 
centrated loads of vehicular 
traffic without causing further 
damage or structural degrada- 
tion. The adaptation was to be 
effected without impairing or 
compromising the structure or 
its continued survival as a 
historic monument. 

The project was the subject 
of two public hearings, a series 
of meetings with local officials, 
on-site meetings with Depart- 
ment of Transportation 
officials from New York and 
Pennsylvania, and meetings 
with the Advisory Council on 
Historic Preservation. The 
designers and engineers then 
went back to Roebling's origi- 
nal design for the aqueduct and 
modified it internally to serve 
its new function. From 1 980 to 
1986, the National Park Ser- 
vice carefully integrated new 
materials into the original 

Heat-pressed timber was 

used to replace rotten, 
untreated beams, and a three- 
tiered concrete deck was 
installed to replace the stabiliz- 
ing effect of the water weight. 
Original stones from the bridge 
piers were pulled from the 
river bottom, cleaned, and 
reinstalled. Suspension cables 
were unwrapped, cleaned, 
restored, and completely re- 
wrapped by hand. With the 
help of a photograph discov- 
ered midway through the con- 
struction, lost ice jetties were 
replaced. Steel-bearing plates, 
neoprene bearing pads, and a 
specially-designed slender steel 
truss system were also 

The landmark structure now 
functions as a one-lane bridge 
connecting the two communi- 
ties of Lackawaxen and Mini- 
sink. The travel time between 
the two locations has been sig- 
nificantly reduced, ambulance 
and fire apparatus can respond 
more quickly, and local resi- 
dents are pleased with the con- 
venience afforded by the 
reopened aqueduct. Visually, 
the Delaware Aqueduct 
appears essentially unchanged 
from the way it stood in 1 848. 


U.S. Department of the Interior. 

National Park Service, 

Mid-Atlantic Region, 

Philadelphia. PA 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 

Recreational River, 

Narrowsburg, NY 
Abba G. Lichtenstein &. 

Associates, Fair Lawn, N| 
Beyer Blinder Bell Architects and 

Planners, New York, NY 
Ammann & Whitney. New York, NY 

2 7 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



East Huntington Bridge 
Huntington, West Virginia, and 
Proctorville, Ohio 

The result of an innovative 
Federal Highway Administra- 
tion (FHwA) alternative bid- 
ding program for major bridge 
construction, the East Hun- 
tington Bridge is a testament to 
the efficacy of calculated risk- 
taking. The new structure, 
completed in 1985, is a 2,000- 
foot-long bridge over the Ohio 
River. Prior to the implementa- 
tion of the existing design, 
work on a conventional steel 
box girder cable-stayed bridge 
had begun. When construction 
was halted, the two main piers 
had already been erected in 
the river. In order to meet the 
directives of the FHwA alterna- 
tive bidding program, however, 
a new design was required. 

The competing design had to 
be constructed of an alterna- 
tive material— concrete— and 
was required to be equal or 
lower in cost than the existing 
design. Eight months of inten- 
sive research and design work 
resulted in a revolutionary 
cable-stayed concrete structure. 
The new design employed 
techniques that allowed the 
elimination of one of the piers 
in the original plan, as well as 
the construction of a heavier 
concrete system on the piers 
already built. To accomplish 
this, the concrete strength stan- 
dard was increased two and 
one half times and the con- 
crete girder was designed with 
steel floor beams. This hybrid- 
ization made the East Hun- 
tington Bridge the first 
structure to incorporate pre- 
stressed concrete and steel in a 
main girder. 

The bridge's main span is 
1,500 feet long and is stayed by 
62 steel cables arranged in two 
cable planes supported by a 
420-foot tower. The graceful 

sweep of the cables and the 
dramatic presence of the single 
tower make the East Hun- 
tington Bridge as much of a 
visual statement as it is a feat of 
engineering. Although termi- 
nating construction on the first 
design may have initially 
seemed ill-considered, the 
results have since justified that 
decision. Implementing the 
new design resulted in a sav- 
ings of over $ 1 million and 
also supported the FHwA's goal 
of fostering excellence and 
innovation through its alterna- 
tive bidding program. The East 
Huntington Bridge demon- 
strates the results of sound 
design leadership. 


U.S. Department of Transportation. 

Federal Highway Administration, 

Bridge Division. Washington, DC 
U.S. Department of Transportation, 

Federal Highway Administration, 

West Virginia Division, 

Charleston, WV 
Arvid Grant and Associates, Inc., 

Olympia. WA 

29 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 

It is time that we cast aside the theory 
that excellence of design is a luxury. Let 
us see it instead as a necessity for 
answering real human needs. And let us 
also realize that good design can save 
money, time and maintenance and that 
it can immeasurably enhance 
communication and understanding. 

Richard Nixon 
April 2, 1973 

Good design can help us meet our 
commitment to improve the efficiency 
of government and ease public access 
to federal agencies and programs. 
Pleasant, productive work settings; 
lively, inviting buildings and grounds; 
and attractive, readable publications 
are all important ways to carry out this 
commitment and reaffirm our concern 
for the human side of government. 

Jimmy Carter 
June 8, 1978 

The federal government is the nation's 
largest single builder, printer, and user 
of design services: what we build, print, 
or cause to be manufactured for federal 
use directly affects every citizen. We 
must ensure that these vast investments 
are cost-effective, well-planned, and 
reflect the standards of excellence 
which we all expect from our 

Ronald Reagan 
December 21, 1983 


Graphics and Industrial 

Leila Vignelli, Chair 
New York, NY 

Bruce Burdick 
San Francisco, CA 

Nicholas Chaparos 
Cincinnati, OH 

Donald Lynn 
Arlington, VA 

Katherine McCoy 
Bloomfield, MI 

Samina Quraeshi 
Cambridge, MA 

William Stumpf 
Minneapolis, MN 

Architecture and 
Interior Design 

Henry Cobb, Chair 
New York, NY 

Stanley Abercrombie 
New York, NY 

Diana Balmori 
New Haven, CT 

David De Long 
Philadelphia, PA 

David Dibner 
Bethesda, MD 

Sarah Tomerlin Lee 
New York, NY 

Donlyn Lyndon 
Berkeley, CA 

William Murtagh 
College Park, MD 

Landscape Architecture, 
Urban Design and 

Joan Goody, Chair 
Boston, MA 

J. Max Bond, Jr. 
New York, NY 

John Bullard 
New Bedford, MA 

Linda Jewell 
Raleigh, NC 

Fidel Lopez 
Chicago, IL 

Ervin Zube 
Tucson, KL 


Mario Salvadori, Chair 
New York, NY 

Myron Goldsmith 
Chicago, IL 

Tom Peyton, Jr. 
Washington, DC 

H. C. Yu 
Richmond, VA 



Good design constitutes much more 
than attractive appearance. When 
graphic design works well, it leads the 
reader to pick up the publication and 
read it, to stay with the text from start 
to finish. It makes the contents easy to 
follow and the message easy to 
understand. Indeed, the most effective 
design underscores the written 
message, that is, makes a statement 
that the information contained in the 
publication is reliable, the product of 
competent professionals. It tells the 
reader that he or she can rely on what 
we have to say, that the publication in 
hand is the product of people who 
strive for excellence in all facets of 
their work and who take pride in what 
they produce. 

At the General Accounting Office, our 
design improvements have made us 
more efficient. . . . And they have saved 
us money. . . . More importantly, 
though, our publications are now more 
readable, and the truest measure of a 
publication's cost is not the cost per 
copy printed, but the cost per copy 
read. The truest measure of its value is 
the effectiveness with which it delivers 
its message. 

Charles A. Bowsher 
Comptroller General 
of the United States 
General Accounting Office 


Graphic Standards System 
Environmental Protection Agency 

Both the image and effective- 
ness of any federal agency are 
directly linked to the quality of 
its communications within the 
government and with the pub- 
lic. The Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency (EPA), upon 
reviewing the range of its 
graphic materials, discovered 
that it sorely lacked consistent 
character. In fact, the nature of 
its publications still reflected 
the disparate identities of the 
four agencies and 1 5 programs 
that had been brought together 
to form the EPA in 1971. This 
lack of cohesion and visual 
standards was preventing the 
agency from successfully com- 
municating its activities. 

To correct this situation, and 
to help establish a standardized 
graphic system, the EPA first 
undertook an agency-wide sur- 
vey of its visual materials. Each 
publication was evaluated for 
its effectiveness, relevance, 
visual impact, consistency, and 
cost. The survey discovered 
that most problems were 
related to disorganized layout, 
inconsistent use of typography 
and logo placement, and poor 
quality control. After ascertain- 
ing the requirements of 
regional offices and laborato- 
ries, the EPA contracted with a 
design consultant to establish a 
system of design standards that 
could be applied to all of the 
agency's printed materials. 

This system, now 1 2 years 
old, has resulted in a greatly 
improved image for the EPA 
and has elevated its publica- 
tions to a level of consistent 
excellence. Severely limiting 
options in paper sizes, stocks, 
inks, formats, and fonts has 
allowed for the integration and 
standardization of the agency's 
communications. Having pro- 
vided a logical framework 

within which to work, agency 
designers are now producing 
lively materials that reinforce 
the image of the EPA as an 
informed, effective force in pro- 
tecting the environment. 

The graphic standards system 
now governs visual communi- 
cations in all of the EPA's labo- 
ratories, program areas, and 
regions. Implementation of the 
system has greatly reduced the 
EPA's reliance on outside con- 
sultants, enhanced in-house 
production efficiency, elimi- 
nated redundancy, and drasti- 
cally reduced printing and 
typesetting costs. For an initial 
cost of $120,000, the EPA has 
significantly increased its abil- 
ity to communicate its mission 
and accomplishments to the 



Environmental Protection 
Agency, Publications 
Division. Washington. DC 

Chermayeff and Ceismar 
Associates. New York. NY 

34 1988 PkisiniNTiAi Dfsicn Awards 



Army Trainer Magazine 
U.S. Department of the Army 




Army Trainer magazine, a pub- 
lication devoted exclusively to 
Army training, has consistently 
stood out among government 
publications as an example of 
excellent design. Editors and 
writers work directly with 
those most involved with 
training— generals, unit com- 
manders, and individuals with 
expertise in the field. The mag- 
azine discusses issues pertain- 
ing to training and commu- 
nicates methods that will 
limit training-related injuries, 
deaths, and hospital costs, 
while increasing the capability 
of soldiers to fight, survive, and 

While its production budget 
is modest, Army Trainer makes 
creative use of limited design 
elements. Much of the modern 
appearance of the magazine is 
derived from the sophisticated 
manipulation of typefaces, dra- 
matic cropping of photographs, 

and careful integration of 
illustrations— techniques that 
keep the editorial flow lively 
and engaging. A reliance on 
two-color printing has required 
the designers to be especially 
imaginative in their use of 
tints, screens, duo-tones, and 

Within the constraints of a 
limited production budget and 
the strictures of a narrow edito- 
rial focus, Army Trainer has 
been widely praised for its 
sophisticated graphics. The 
magazine has won numerous 
design awards, including the 
DESI Award for design excel- 
lence and the Blue Pencil 
Award from the National Asso- 
ciation of Government 


U.S. Department of the Army. 
Training Support Center, 
Fort Eustis, VA 




35 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


Resource Protection Exhibits 
Yosemite National Park, California 

Effective signage must, above 
all else, convey its meaning to 
its audience. Different situa- 
tions call for different solutions, 
depending on the nature of the 
message, the surrounding envi- 
ronment, and those who are 
likely to be exposed to it. 
Attendance at our national 
parks has steadily increased 
over the years, with record 
numbers of visitors seeking 
recreation and education. With 
the rise in attendance has 
come an increase in the num- 
ber of accidents and fatalities 
within the national park sys- 
tem, however. The possibility 
of mishap is multiplied where 
the natural setting contains 
potentially dangerous condi- 
tions such as sheer cliffs or 
treacherous waters. The danger 
is not only to the visitor but 
also to the natural habitats pre- 
served in our parks. Many of 
these environments are fragile, 
endangered, or unstable and 
can be easily damaged or 
destroyed by the influx of 

At Yosemite National Park, a 
new signage program devel- 
oped by the National Park Ser- 
vice's Interpretive Design 
Center addresses both 
concerns— people and 
habitat— in a clear and effective 
manner. The key to the success 
of these signs is the educa- 
tional information contained in 
them. Rather than simply 
announcing a prohibited activ- 
ity, the signs explain to the visi- 
tor why the activity is 
dangerous or harmful, and 
what the long-term conse- 
quences of such activity are. 
Screen-printed fiberglass panels 
carry bold red and white 
graphics and pictographs to 
convey their messages. Such 
an approach has proven 

effective not only in curbing 
prohibited activity, but also 
as a teaching tool, providing 
the public with information 
about natural habitats, topogra- 
phy, and ecological systems. 
The fiberglass panels have 
weathered the elements 
extremely well and withstood 
the best efforts of vandals. The 
white and red graphics contrast 
with the environment and call 
attention to their message. 
(Warnings and information are 
presented in English, German, 
French, Spanish, and Japanese.) 
The panels, when mounted on 
modified aluminum bases, can 
also be adapted for use as in 
situ exhibits. This signage pro- 
gram has proven so 
successful— Yosemite Park 
Rangers have reported no 
water-related deaths since the 
warning signs were installed— 
that requests for the signs have 
come in from parks around the 
country. The signage materials 
are lightweight and inexpen- 
sive, and since many signs are 
now in use throughout the 
U.S., the unit cost has dropped 
from $1,500 to $32. 


U.S. Department of the Interior. 
National Park Service. 
Interpretive Design Center. 
Harpers Ferry. WV 

36 1988 Presidential Desicn Awards 



Poster Catalogs and One-Color Publications 
U.S. Geological Survey 

By applying an integrated 
approach to the design of its 
publications, the National Map- 
ping Program (NMP) of the U.S. 
Geological Survey has been 
able to handle a three-fold 
increase in public requests for 
information without hiring 
additional personnel or increas- 
ing its budget. NMP offers a 
wide range of geological, carto- 
graphic, and technical maps to 
the public that vary greatly in 
format, scale, content, and pur- 
pose. These products were 
listed in a dense, hardbound 
catalog that was sold to the 
public for $6.00. Countless 
hours were spent by NMP staff 
responding individually to 
requests from the public, and 
by 1 985, these requests had 
grown to 650,000 annually. 
Faced with personnel and 
expenditures ceilings man- 
dated by Gramm-Rudman- 
Hollings (the Balanced Budget 
and Emergency Deficit Control 
Act of 1985), the NMP was 
threatened with an inability to 
respond to the growing public 
demand for its services. The 
agency's creative response to 
this impending crisis was to 
streamline both the format and 
production of their catalog to 

make it both easier to use and 
cheaper to produce. Using 
their graphic standards manual, 
which was developed in 1980, 
NMP effectively revamped its 
primary means of communicat- 
ing with the public. 

In place of the expensive and 
confusing hardbound catalog, a 
series of poster catalogs for 
maps, cartographic data, and 
digital cartographic and geo- 
graphic data was developed. 
The combination of bold color 
images and concise explana- 
tory remarks quickly and effec- 
tively conveys the content of 
each of the offerings. The 
poster format had the added 
advantage of being easy to refer 
to, and each catalog could be 
produced for 1 5 cents, making 
it possible to send it to the public 
at no charge. The same rigor- 
ous standards were also 
applied to NMP forms. A series 
of one-color fact sheets, order 
forms, and price lists was 
developed that is simple, read- 
able, and attractive. 

The redesign of the catalog 
and forms has resulted in 
numerous benefits. The catalog 
posters are easily and inexpen- 
sively produced in print runs of 
100,000, and the standardized 
approach to form design allows 
new ones to be created in one 
to two weeks at half the 
expense previously required. 
Together, these two projects 
have increased efficiency, 
reduced costs, and enabled the 
agency to improve its commu- 
nication with the public. 


U.S. Department of the Interior, 

Geological Survey, 

National Mapping Division, 

Reston, VA 
Chaparos Productions, Inc., 

Washington, DC 

3 7 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


Visual Communication Standards 
General Accounting Office 

The General Accounting Office 
(GAO) is charged with improv- 
ing government operations by 
studying federal programs and 
recommending changes that 
will yield increased efficiency 
and cost savings. In this 
project, GAO examined its 
own methods for publishing 
and disseminating its informa- 
tional materials. A 1983 GAO 
evaluation found that its publi- 
cations were confusing, inac- 
cessible, and did not present a 
consistent image to its readers. 
Since GAO effects change pri- 
marily by persuading law- 
makers via its printed materials, 
this lack of cohesion put its 
effectiveness in jeopardy. 

The process of systematizing 
GAO's publications began with 
a survey of its readership, 
including federal executives 
and congressional officials, 
state and local government rep- 
resentatives, members of the 
media and academia, and GAO 
staff members. Working with 
an outside design consultant, 
GAO formulated a design 
approach that responded 
directly to the requirements 
and concerns of the user. The 
resulting publications system 
provides design guidelines that 
now apply to nearly all of 
GAO's printed material, from 
reports to forms. The new 
guidelines have eliminated 
idiosyncrasies, confusion, and 
intimidating appearances and 
replaced them with clarity, 
increased legibility, and visual 

The system developed at 
GAO was not simply 
cosmetic— rather, it was all- 
encompassing. In order for the 
agency to maintain the high 
design standards it had set for 
itself, a re-evaluation of the 
entire process through which 
its publications were produced 
was required. This led to the 
complete automation of the 
production cycle, from data in- 
putting to typesetting and 
paste-up. The time and expense 
associated with galley type, 
hand-rendered charts, and page 
design were unacceptable. 
GAO wrote and programmed 
its own proprietary software to 
meet its needs as none was 
available commercially. 

The results of this system 
have been dramatic and far- 
reaching. GAO publications are 
now of a uniform structure that 
allows for individual variations, 
contemporary typography, and 
the inclusion of support materials 

(charts, graphs) at a reasonable 
cost and with increased 
accessibility and legibility. With 
this set of graphic standards in 
place, the agency can better 
execute its mission of convey- 
ing information and fostering 

GAO has reported tremen- 
dous cost savings since the 
new system has been in place. 
Under the previous system, for 
instance, hand-rendered charts 
took from one to four hours to 
create and cost from $75 to 
$ 1 20, depending upon their 
complexity. Now, charts can be 
produced for as little as $ 1 and 
often in as little as 1 5 minutes. 
The project also resulted in 
establishing a GAO Publishing 
and Communications Office, 
which has a direct link with 
GAO's top management, to 
continue to promote agency- 
wide improvement and com- 
mitment to quality commu- 
nications. For GAO, a sound 
design strategy tailored to spe- 
cific user needs, coupled with 
its rigorous implementation, 
has increased efficiency, cut 
costs, and resulted in tangible 
benefits that may prove to be of 
national import. 


General Accounting Office. 

Office of Publishing and 


Washington. DC 
Robert P. Gersin Associates. 

New York. NY 

38 1988 Presidential Desic.n Awards 



National Portrait Gallery 
Washington, DC 

The National Portrait Gallery 
has a long tradition of design 
excellence that is at once ele- 
gant, sophisticated, and appro- 
priate to its purpose. The 
gallery has achieved a high 
level of design quality in the 
installations of both the perma- 
nent collection and many of 
the museum's temporary exhi- 
bitions. The gallery's exhibi- 
tions have been realized with 
surprisingly modest expendi- 
tures, however. Emphasis 
placed on subtleties of lighting, 
color, and the exploitation of 
interior architecture, combined 
with a conservative treatment 
of captions and graphics, have 
yielded solutions of under- 
stated elegance and clarity. 

Permanent Collection 

The permanent collection of 
the National Portrait Gallery 
consists of over 1 ,000 portraits 
depicting notable Americans 
from the early Colonial era to 
the twentieth century. Reor- 
ganizing the gallery's perma- 
nent holdings by theme 
successfully increased the 
logic, cohesiveness, and visual 
impact of the collection. The 
collection was broken down 
into five categories: arts and 
entertainment, art and litera- 
ture, shapers and settlers of 
America's frontiers and institu- 
tions, innovators of science and 
technology, and the Civil War. 
By arranging the works the- 
matically within a chronologi- 
cal framework, the collection 
was made both more interest- 
ing and historically relevant to 

Gaston Lachaise 

While other exhibitions had 
focused on the entire oeuvre of 
American sculptor Gaston 
Lachaise (1882-1935), the 
National Portrait Gallery exhi- 
bition focused only on his por- 
trait sculpture. The challenge 
of such a thematic study was to 
install 50 works by the same 
artist in a way that would 
underscore the expressive con- 
tent of his work and maintain a 
unified character throughout 
the exhibition. A restrained 
design approach brought forth 
the power of the artist's sculp- 
tures. Each piece was mounted 
on a simple pedestal, spot-lit, 
and set off against a neutral 
background. Extended captions 
required to explain biographical 
information about the artist and 
his subjects were incorporated 

into the pedestals at a 
comfortable viewing level. This 
approach was deemed so suc- 
cessful that the gallery has 
extended its application to all 
of its signage, including labels 
for the permanent collection 
and special exhibitions. 

John Frazee 

Considered "the first native- 
born American to fashion a 
portrait in marble," John Frazee 
is a sculptor not previously 
known outside art historical 
circles. This exhibition relied 
on the gallery's interior 
design— contemporaneous 
with the 19th-century 
sculptor— to exhibit the work 
within the artist's own social 
and cultural milieu. A sensitive 
use of color and a decorative 
approach to the design of 
exhibit furniture established a 
relationship between the 
works displayed and the archi- 
tecture of the gallery. Wall 
treatments and fabrics were 
also used to further enliven the 
mise en scene for the work of 
this artist who, by the mid- 
1 830s, had sculpted some of 
America's most notable figures. 


Smithsonian Institution, 
National Portrait Gallery. 
Washington, DC 

39 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


Examination Announcement Brochure 
Farm Credit Administration 


What Works: Research About 

Teaching and Learning 

U.S. Department of Education 

Effective design need not be 
expensive. A case in point is 
"Examination Announcement 
435," a brochure published by 
the Farm Credit Administration 
to attract applicants for posi- 
tions as credit examiners. 

The purpose of the brochure 
was to attract the attention of 
potential applicants, interest 
them in the agency's work, 
and guide them through the 
application process. Designers 
presented the clear, concise 
text in a simple but elegant for- 
mat. The 14-page brochure 
conveys the dignity appropri- 
ate both to its intended audi- 
ence and to the federal agency 
it represents. 

Bold use of a solid color on 
the cover ensured that the bro- 
chure would stand out when 
displayed among other publica- 
tions in recruitment offices. 
Ample margins, restrained 
typography, and clear headings 
allow the applicant to readily 
grasp the information. Applica- 
tion forms are included in the 
brochure, thereby eliminating 
the extra steps of collating and 
mailing the forms separately. 
The Farm Credit Administra- 
tion reports that the level of 
applicants has increased with 
the introduction of the new 
recruitment brochure— a quan- 
tifiable benefit from a publica- 
tion with a unit cost of 40 

The Office of Educational 
Research and Improvement 
had a wealth of information 
regarding successful tech- 
niques for improving the edu- 
cation of children, but lacked a 
vehicle for transmitting this 
information to those who were 
in a position to put it into 

What Works is a concise, 
easy-to-read handbook that dis- 
cusses various methods to 
improve the education of chil- 
dren at every level. The book- 
let draws on the expertise of 
individuals, research organiza- 
tions, educators, universities, 
professional journals, and the 
United States and foreign gov- 
ernments. The information is 
divided into three tiers consist- 
ing of a basic concept and 
learning goal, explanatory copy, 
and reference listings. Each of 
the booklet's 65 pages is 
devoted to a single concept 
that is informative and readily 

The conceptual organization 
is supported by a graphic 
design that is clear and com- 
prehensible. The value of this 
booklet has been documented 
by the users themselves; 98 
percent of the respondents to a 
reader's card contained inside 
the book stated that the hand- 
book was easily understood 
and was not cluttered with jar- 
gon. What Works: Research 
About Teaching and Learning 
will now serve as a prototype 
for three future volumes in the 
What Works series. The target 
audience for this project is not 
only teachers and educators 
but also family members and 

others who have an interest in 
the education of children. This 
group said that the booklet 
reassured them that they too 
could have a positive impact 
on the education of a child 
close to them, a testament to 
the value of this project. 


Farm Credit Administration. 
McLean, VA 


U.S. Department of Education, 
Office of Educational 
Research and Improvement, 
Washington, DC 

Editorial Experts, Alexandria. VA 

40 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



International Paper Shows and Exhibits 
U.S. Information Agency 

One of the most visible aspects 
of American cultural diplomacy 
is the series of traveling 
exhibits produced annually by 
the U.S. Information Agency's 
Exhibits Service. The intent of 
these exhibits is to provide 
overseas audiences with engag- 
ing presentations of American 
cultural life in support of U.S. 
foreign policy objectives. Ten 
to twelve exhibits are pro- 
duced each year in the form of 
large, multi-media shows or 
smaller poster exhibits called 
"paper shows." In producing 
these exhibits, which speak for 
America in foreign lands, the 
USIA Exhibits Service has 
maintained a commendable 
level of quality and design 

Paper Shows 

Typically, these traveling 
exhibits consist of twelve or 
more panels on which posters, 
photographs, or other materials 
are mounted for presentation. 
These exhibits are frequently 

the only program material 
available to USIA posts in 
smaller and less developed 
countries. Although not large 
in scale, these exhibits are of 
high quality. All presentation 
panels are designed in accor- 
dance with specifications that 
allow them to be mounted on 
a standardized display system 
or in government cultural cen- 
ters, libraries, or embassies. 

By allowing its graphic 
designers greater control in the 
selection of photographs and 
artwork, the Exhibits Service is 
able to produce extremely pro- 
fessional exhibits at significant 
cost savings. The designers' 
increased involvement encour- 
ages them to stretch the limits 
of their creative powers, thus 
ensuring a lively and dramatic 

Captions are produced in 
English, French, and Spanish 
versions; other exhibits are left 
blank, allowing for the inser- 
tion of other languages on site 
at minimal cost. Exhibit 
themes respond to requests 
from various USIA posts. More 
than 700 of these shows circu- 
late around the world annually 
at an average production cost 
of $21,000 each, exploring top- 
ics that range from "Traditional 
Artists in America" to "Mod- 
ern Dance in America." 
Because they are inexpensive 
and easily transported, these 
paper shows have gained an 
ever-increasing foreign audi- 

Multi-Media Exhibits 

USIA's traveling multi-media 
exhibits are charged with the 
same mission as their smaller 
counterparts, the paper shows. 
These exhibits, however, are 
produced on a much larger 
scale and may include anything 

from photographs and videos 
to domestic objects and heavy 
machinery. While larger and 
more expensive than the paper 
shows, the multi-media 
exhibits are quite economical. 
The USIA's Exhibits Service 
maintains an inventory of 
equipment and materials that is 
constantly recycled into new 

High aesthetic standards are 
maintained by the agency's 
direct supervision of the 
projects and by the participa- 
tion of consulting professionals 
in private-sector fields relevant 
to an exhibit's theme. These 
traveling exhibits are carefully 
designed for the fullest visual 
impact while remaining easily 
transportable and adaptable to 
different settings and lan- 
guages. The level of excellence 
maintained throughout the 
range of exhibits has ensured 
the program's continued suc- 
cess abroad. Their impact can 
best be gauged by the reactions 
of foreign visitors. After view- 
ing "Design in America," one 
Yugoslavian journalist was 
moved to write: "One seldom 
experiences such a total show 
of the whole spectrum of imag- 
ination. This is a picture ... of 
how Americans see their 
America." Generally costing 
$100,000 -$400,000 per show, 
this program has proven itself 
to be an effective means of con- 
veying the vitality of American 
cultural life. 


United States Information 
Agency. Exhibits Service. 
Washington. DC 

4 1 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


Sign Standards Program 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 









m q b a a b 


S SI IS SI IS SI L^^*^l S SI IS s 



The Army Corps of Engineers 
manages 4,500 recreation facil- 
ities and 430 navigation and 
flood control projects used by 
more than 500 million visitors 
annually. Effective signage at 
these outdoor locations is cru- 
cial to inform, identify, instruct, 
direct, and warn the public. 
But the Corps had no consis- 
tent sign standards. An exami- 
nation revealed their signs 
were of poor quality, wordy, 
illegible, badly maintained, and 
lacked visual continuity. By 
1 982, annual costs for sign 
maintenance and replacement 
had risen to $4.5 million. In 
addition to this figure was $ 1 
million paid out annually by 
the Corps and the Department 
of Justice for accident-related 
legal claims stemming, in large 
part, from inadequate and con- 
fusing signage. 

To rectify this serious com- 
munications and liability prob- 
lem, the Corps undertook to 
develop a national sign stan- 
dards program as an extension 
of their graphic standards man- 
ual. The goal was to develop an 
appropriate identity for signs in 
the environment, improve 
communications, reduce initial 
production and maintenance 
costs, aid in the reduction of 
accidents, and outline a plan 
for managing and maintaining 
the program. 

Research, which included 
site surveys, typographic legi- 
bility, and suitability of materi- 
als, was conducted and 
compiled along with an exten- 
sive evaluation of the success 
or failure of existing signage 
programs. Legal advice was 
obtained to assist in developing 
safety standards. Research sci- 
entists assisted in developing 
color and viewing standards. A 
draft manual was prepared and 

various prototypes were field 
tested. Following a rigorous 
two-year review, the program 
was implemented and the sign 
standards manual published. 
The final signage program was 
based on brevity, clarity, dura- 
bility, availability, and cost. 
The program included a 
management plan and accom- 
panying program software to 
reduce the bureaucracy and 
expense required to maintain 
the program. Furthermore, a 
supplier network and procure- 
ment system was established to 
insure quality control through- 
out the entire system. Aver- 
aged out over the entire 
system, the program was devel- 
oped at a cost of less than $250 
per facility; future cost savings 
will be manifested in the form of 
reduced liability and mainte- 
nance expenses. The thorough 
and exhaustive design 
approach that led to the devel- 
opment of the Corps' Sign 
Standards Program can well 
serve as a model for other 


U.S. Department of the Army. 

Corps of Engineers. 

Visual Information Office. 

Washington, DC 
Meeker &. Associates. Inc . 

New York. NY 
Richard Danne & Associates. 

New York. NY 
Blackburn Associates. 

New York, NY 
Leslie Blum Design. 

New York, NY 
Paul Singer. Brooklyn. NY 
Paula Heisen. New York. NY 
Irwin M Siegel. New York. NY 

42 1988 Phi sidintiai Design Awards 



U.S. Air Service in World War I: 
final Report and Tactical History 
U.S. Government Printing Office 


Glen Haven Exhibit 

Sleeping Bear Dunes, Michigan 

From Orville Wright to Billy 
Mitchell, the rich history of 
American flying and its mili- 
tary applications has been doc- 
umented in an extensive, yet 
readily accessible, four-volume 
series published by the Gov- 
ernment Printing Office under 
the direction of the U.S. Air 
Force. Eschewing the dry, 
pedantic tone of much official 
historiography, U.S. Air Service 
in World War I: Final Report 
and Tactical History is an 
authoritative and readable nar- 
rative that recounts the 
achievements of those who 
pioneered the course of 
modern aviation. 

Hardbound books are fin- 
ished in a rich cloth binding, 
attractively embossed with 
gold stamping. Inside, exquisite 
vintage duotone photographs 
and line drawings embellish 
the text and enliven the narra- 
tive. A definitive resource for 
scholars and officials, the series 
is equally appealing to the lay- 
person or history buff. The 
series has been enthusiastically 
received by historians and suc- 
ceeds in filling a gap in the 
history of our armed forces. 


U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Division of Typography and 
Design, Washington, DC 

U.S. Department of the Air Force, 
Washington, DC 

A collection of maritime mem- 
orabilia and artifacts reflecting 
the history of shipping in the 
Great Lakes region has been 
housed in a restored Coast 
Guard station in the Sleeping 
Bear Dunes National Lakeshore 
in Michigan. This permanent 
exhibit is notable not only for 
the impeccable historical accu- 
racy that guided the renovation 
of the building in which it is 
housed but also for the sensi- 
tive design approach to the dis- 
play of artifacts. 

The project directors decided 
from the outset that the aban- 
doned station should be pre- 
served and restored as an 
interpretive center for the his- 
tory of shipping and maritime 
activity in the Great Lakes 
region. All of the rooms were 
left in their original dimensions 
and decorated with colors and 
finishes of the period, an 
approach that assured the his- 
torical accuracy of the renova- 
tion but placed constraints on 
the designers of the exhibit. 

The exhibit design was based 

on low-cost modular, free- 
standing components that were 
adaptable to the small, inflexi- 
ble spaces of the building. The 
displays do not obstruct or alter 
the meticulously restored inte- 
rior; no panels are attached to 
the walls other than small 
plaques describing the original 
purposes of the rooms. The 
modular units are joined, top 
and bottom, by brass fittings 
that echo the museum's nauti- 
cal theme. Together, the design 
features of the exhibit coalesce 
to create a permanent museum 
in which context and content 
are mutually beneficial. 


U.S. Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Interpretive Design Center, 
Harpers Ferry, WV 

Design Craftsmen Inc., 
Midland, Ml 

Chris White Design, Inc., 
Severna Park, MD 

43 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


Maps and Minds Exhibition 
U.S. Geological Survey 

"Maps and Minds" is a carto- 
graphic exhibition that brings 
together an array of materials 
ranging from ancient Roman 
road maps to state-of-the-art 
geologic maps of Mars. Spon- 
sored jointly by the U.S. Geo- 
logical Survey and the National 
Geographic Society, the exhibi- 
tion was designed for travel. It 
contains materials selected 
from over 80 national and 
international museums and 
organizations, including the 
British and Vatican Museums 

and the U.S. Department of 

To achieve maximum mobil- 
ity, an innovative mounting 
system was developed. The 
system had to adhere to high 
aesthetic standards, readily 
adapt to a variety of exhibition 
settings, be lightweight and 
easily transportable to reduce 
set-up and shipping costs, and 
hold up structurally over an 
extended period. The solution 
was found in the use of a low- 
cost, lightweight cardboard 
material divided into sections 
mounted on curvilinear panels 
and triangular kiosks. Design 
guidelines were were used to 
determine the panel covering, 
the selection and placement of 
type, photographs and line art, 
and the layout of the accompa- 
nying catalogue and other col- 
lateral materials. High-resolu- 
tion photographs and render- 
ings were complemented by 
text silk-screened directly onto 
the panels. 

Designed and produced for 
$80,000, "Maps and Minds" 
has been seen by more than 
300,000 people in 13 states 
since it opened in 1983. After 
traveling to 1 4 locations, the 
exhibit remains in excellent 
condition and has required 
only minimal repairs. The qual- 
ity of its content and design 
makes "Maps and Minds" an 
invaluable educational tool in 
an era marked by a declining 
knowledge of geography. 


U.S. Department of the Interior, 

Geological Survey. 

Reston. VA 
National Geographic Society. 

Washington. DC 
Chaparos Productions, Ltd.. 

Washington. DC 
Perimeter Exhibits. Ltd., 

Brookview, IL 

44 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



Minerals Management Service Graphic 


Wine: Celebration and Ceremony 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
Smithsonian Institution 

As a relatively new federal 
bureau established in 1982, 
the Minerals Management Ser- 
vice (MMS) lacked a clear, con- 
sistent identity for its printed 
materials. Of primary concern 
was the development of a dis- 
tinctive logotype that would 
successfully represent the 
bureau to its primary audience, 
the natural gas and oil indus- 

The new logotype used by 
the MMS incorporates the 
bureau's full name and acro- 
nym. Simple and striking, it 
can be integrated in a variety of 
sizes into the many forms, let- 
ters, booklets, and publications 
routinely published by the 
bureau and can be reproduced 
in any number of printing 
methods. The design was 
selected by a limited design 
competition in which designs 
were field-tested for effective- 
ness. The final design met with 
favorable results in the field 
and now represents the MMS 
to the public. 

The MMS logo is noteworthy 
primarily for its versatility. 
Comprised of highly legible, 
slightly slanted block capital 
letters that stand out distinctly 
against the printed page, it is 
easy and inexpensive to repro- 
duce. It is neither glamorous 
nor flashy, but it successfully 
meets all the the requirements 
of the design brief. The design 
and the guidelines for its appli- 
cation were created for a mod- 
est one-time fee of $4,500 and 
are anticipated to retain their 
currency for many years to 


From ancient Greece to the 
vineyards of California, wine 
has been prominent in the 
social, economic, artistic, and 
ritualistic life of innumerable 
civilizations. Wine: Celebration 
and Ceremony, a book which 
accompanied an exhibition by 
the Smithsonian Institution's 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum, 
explores the aesthetic impact 
wine has had on peoples and 

early processing tools, para- 
phernalia, and advertisements. 
Recording the profound influ- 
ence that wine and its attend- 
ant symbolism have held over 
people and their civilizations, 
the publication demonstrates 
the Cooper-Hewitt Museum's 
rigorous commitment to foster 
public awareness of design. 
The cover, endpapers, typeface, 
visual materials, and quality of 

nations of all eras. 

Design and its relationship to 
wine encompass a wide range 
of activities, from painting, 
sculpture, and tableware to 
methods of production and har- 
vesting. Supplementing the 
book's three essays are photo- 
graphs of drinking vessels, 

reproductions are all of the 
highest caliber. By insisting 
upon a standard of design 
excellence, the museum has 
produced a document of lasting 
value, provided a forum for 
debate on the issues raised by 
the exhibition, and made an 
example of practical design 
excellence available to a large 


U.S. Department of the Interior. 

Minerals Management Service. 

Technical Publications Unit, 

Vienna, VA 
Chaparos Productions, Inc., 

Washington, DC 


Smithsonian Institution, 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum of 
Decorative Arts and Design, 
New York, NY 
Kathy Homans, Seattle, WA 
Eric Ceputis, Chicago. IL 

4 5 1 988 PRtsiDtNTiAL Dhsic.n Awards 


Statue of Liberty Centennial Publications 
National Park Service 


The restoration and centennial 
celebration of one of America's 
most cherished national sym- 
bols, the Statue of Liberty, gen- 
erated enormous public 
interest. The National Park Ser- 
vice was charged with commis- 
sioning educational materials 
that would be informative and 
accessible to the broadest pos- 
sible audience. Two remarkable 
graphic pieces resulted. 

The first piece was a com- 
memorative poster illustrating 
the association between France 
and the statue. The theme of 
Liberty was conveyed through 
eloquent imagery of the statue 
and vibrant colors. The second 
piece was a free folder telling 
the story of Liberty from the 
moment its design was con- 
ceived by French intellectuals 
until its installation in New 
York Harbor. Photographs of 
the key players in the statue's 
history and of the harbor over 
the last 1 00 years brought the 
story to life. 

These materials were pro- 
duced at little cost to the fed- 
eral government due to 
donations from the public. The 
stewardship of the National 
Park Service ensured that the 
resulting publications would 
reflect the power and symbol- 
ism associated with this popu- 
lar national monument. The 
pieces were well received by 
the public, communicating the 
meaning associated with the 
Statue of Liberty. 


U.S. Department of the Interior. 

National Park Service, 

Division of Publications. 

Harpers Ferry. WV 
Vignelli Associates, 

New York, NY 

46 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



Statue of Liberty Centennial Exhibit 
Liberty Island, New York 

An exhibit in the base of the 
Statue of Liberty commemo- 
rates the monument's centen- 
nial and provides an example 
of the effective use of design 
in the public interest. The 
exhibit's designers set out to 
chart both the history and sym- 
bolic evolution of the Statue of 
Liberty In order to succeed, 
the exhibit had to convey its 
message clearly and concisely 
to visitors ranging from Ameri- 
can school children to foreign 

The designers' approach was 
to relate the history of the 
statue through the stories of 
the people involved in its crea- 
tion and construction. The 
exhibit's two themes, history 
and symbolism, are explored 
through videos, photographs, 
models, and documents— many 
of them exhibited for the first 

square-foot exhibition space to 
allow the casual visitor the 
opportunity to browse without 
impeding the slower pace of 
the more interested visitor. 
Interior spaces were also 
designed to be accessible to 
wheelchair-bound, handi- 
capped, and younger visitors. 
Large-scale type and audio cas- 
settes made the exhibit accessi- 
ble to those with impaired 
vision, as well. 

A collaborative effort 
between the exhibit's design- 
ers and producers resulted in 
an exhibit that does justice to 
its subject and was produced 
on time and slightly under its 
$4 million budget. This effort, 
the first permanent exhibit 
dedicated to the Statue of Lib- 
erty, fills a void in the Park Ser- 
vice's interpretive program and 
provides a model for future 

Keeping in mind the volume 
of visitors likely to pass 
through the exhibit (over 5 
million in 18 months), the 
designers organized the 7,500- 


U.S. Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Statue of Liberty Ellis Island 
Project Office, New York, NY 

U.S. Department of the Interior, 
National Park Service, 
Division of Exhibit Planning 
and Design, Harpers Ferry, WV 

MetaForm Inc., New York, NY 

Rathe Productions. Inc., 
New York, NY 

Design and Production, Inc., 
Norton, VA 

47 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


Books of Postage Stamps, 1 985-1 987 
U.S. Postal Service 


Competitive Edge Program 
National Endowment for the Arts 

Each year the Postmaster Gen- 
eral receives hundreds of digni- 
taries and official visitors. In 
order to offer them a memento 
of their visit, the Postmaster 
General asked the design staff 
to create an appropriate presen- 
tation gift. The result was a 
handsome, hardbound book 
containing stamps issued by 
the U.S. Postal Service over the 
preceding year. The first book, 
produced in 1985, proved so 
successful that books are now 
produced annually. 

Each stamp presented in the 
book is accompanied by infor- 
mation pertaining to its subject, 
artist, and circumstances sur- 
rounding its creation. An ele- 
gant juxtaposition between the 
mint-condition stamps, explan 
atory text, and supplementary 
visual material creates a lively 
page that reflects the varied 
thematic content and consum- 
mate artistry that go into the 
production of U.S. stamps. 

By producing the series in- 
house, the Office of Publica- 
tions and Communications 
Support of the U.S. Postal Ser- 
vice has saved an average of 
$30,000 over contracted 
design costs. Excellent graphic 
presentation and quality of 
content render this presenta- 
tion series an effective diplo- 
matic tool for the Postmaster 
General and a valued gift for 
its recipients. 


U.S. Postal Service, 

Office of Publications and 
Communications Support. 
Washington, DC 

Design is not merely a ques- 
tion of style or aesthetics. 
Rather, it is an activity that 
largely determines the utility, 
benefits, ease of use, and, ulti- 
mately, the success or failure of 
goods and products in the mar- 
ketplace. In order to educate 
the American business com- 
munity about design and to 
provide industry with a valu- 
able resource, the Design Arts 
Program of the National 
Endowment for the Arts and 
The University of Michigan 
conducted an investigation into 
the role of design in American 
business. The result was "The 
Competitive Edge: The Role of 
Design in American Corpora- 
tions," a research and publica- 
tion program that documented 
the successful use of design 
and established a library of 
information that can be 
accessed by interested parties. 

The final product was the 
result of a collaboration among 
its sponsors and private-sector 
businesses. This collaboration 
was crucial to the project's goal 
of examining the ways in 
which the effective use of 
design, employed as a business 
strategy, improves the quality 
of products and services. Other 
countries and governments 
have long known the value of 
design as a means of giving 
their industries the competitive 
edge required to succeed in an 
increasingly global market- 
place. The Competitive Edge 
program is significant, as it 
marks the first comprehensive 
study of design in American 

After five years of research 
and analysis, the program has 
made an invaluable contribu- 
tion to increasing the aware- 
ness of the role of design in 
business. The two sponsors 

made full use of their interdis- 
ciplinary skills to produce a 
multi-faceted resource guide. 
Among the by-products of this 
project are 1 5 detailed case 
studies of companies and 
organizations that document 
the efficacy and financial 
rewards of integrating thought- 
ful design into the manufactur- 
ing process. A critical goal of 
the project was to disseminate 
its findings so that as many 
people as possible could learn 
and implement successful 
design strategies. To that end, 
newsletters and reports are dis- 
tributed nationally and interna- 
tionally to professional 
organizations, and the project's 
findings have been dissemi- 
nated through seminars and 
television programs. The avail- 
ability of this information will 
help foster a corporate atmo- 
sphere where design will be 
recognized as a sound and 
indispensable business invest- 

1ft F** 




National Endowment for the 
Arts. Design Arts Program. 
Washington, DC 

The University of Michigan. 
Architecture and Planning 
Research Laboratory. 
Ann Arbor, Ml 

48 1988 Pkisidinhai Disicn Awards 

Pride is the fuel of human 
accomplishment. When workplaces 
make people feel good, people do 
better work. Excellent facilities make 
people feel good by making them feel 
professional. Excellent facilities 
motivate them to do their best and 
help to ensure the success of the 
department's mission. 

1 have one simple goal: to provide 
excellent places to work and live for the 
men and women who defend America. I 
want the best architecture and 
engineering America has to offer 
because I understand the most 
important function of a building. It is to 
inspire pride. 

Robert A. Stone 

Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense 

for Installations 

U.S. Department of Defense 

. . . Quality design is not an extra cost 
item, but a necessity to ensure that the 
Government gets the maximum value 
for funds spent. Design excellence in 
public architecture not only provides a 
lasting testimony to the unique qualities 
of American accomplishment and 
culture, but maximizes workplace 
efficiency for over one million federal 
employees and provides a positive 
environment for the countless citizens 
who require government services. 

Richard G. Austin 

Acting Administrator 

General Services Administration 


Treasury Building Restoration Program 
Washington, DC 

The Department of the Trea- 
sury has been located just east 
of the White House since the 
federal government moved to 
Washington, DC, in 1800. 
After arsonists burned part of 
the first Treasury Building in 
1 833, a new Greek Revival 
structure was built in three 
stages between 1 836 and 
1 869. Neglect, poor mainte- 
nance, and disregard for the 
historic fabric of the building 
ensued over time, rendering 
many of the Treasury's most 
architecturally significant 
rooms no longer reflective of 
the building's original charac- 
ter. In 1 985, a curatorial office 
was charged with formulating 
restoration plans that were to 
be carried out in stages. 

The goals of the program that 
resulted were not limited to 
the historic rehabilitation of the 
building's interior; other priori- 
ties included improvement of 
the working environment for 
Treasury's employees, the res- 
toration of its collections and 
furnishings, and the promotion 
of the rich and varied history of 
the building. The project began 
with the most public spaces of 
the building, including its two 
miles of corridors, lobbies, and 
domed staircases. Completion 
of these areas was followed by 
work on three historic rooms 
of special significance. One of 
these rooms was the Cash 
Room, which supplied local 
banks with coins and currency 
and was the site for the Inaugu- 
ral Reception for President 
Grant in 1869. 

The meticulous research that 
went into the renovation design 
has yielded a number of benefits. 
First, the original state of the 
building has been replicated as 
accurately as possible, and 
all the documentation, 

photographs, plans, and 
drawings of the building and 
those used in the restoration 
process have now been assem- 
bled into an invaluable archive 
of the building's history. 

The Preservation and Curato- 
rial Office that was established 
to develop this comprehensive 
preservation strategy also put 
in place a permanent guardian 
and conservator of the building 
and its collections. Overseen 
by the Assistant Secretary for 
Management, this office coor- 
dinated in-house construction 
workers, historians, profes- 
sional preservationists, and 
outside contractors and was 
instrumental in assuring that 
the renovation would achieve 
all of its goals. 

The program now includes 
the professional conservation 
of the Treasury Building's 
period furnishings and paint- 
ings. The restoration process 
has also established design 
standards and procedural pre- 
cedents that will guide and 
shape future Treasury projects. 
A series of publications about 
the history of the building is 
being published and tours led 
by professional docents are 
planned. Response to the reno- 
vation has been positive; 
employees are enthusiastic 
about the improved working 
conditions and are more aware 
of the history of their surround- 
ings. Since 1986, the number 
of visitors to the Treasury build- 
ing has increased by 50 


U.S. Department of the Treasury. 
Facilities Management Division, 
Preservation and Curatorial Office. 
Washington. DC 

50 1988 Presidential Design Awards 



Navy/Marine Corps Reserve Training Center 
Buckley ANG Base, Aurora, Colorado 

The design of this facility— the 
largest such Navy and Marine 
training center in the United 
States— succeeds in integrating 
the diverse requirements of 
five reserve branches of the 
Navy, Marines, and Coast 
Guard into a unified, well- 
organized complex. Previously, 
each branch of the reserves 
had its own facility located in 
different parts of Colorado, an 
arrangement that was both 
costly and inefficient. The cur- 
rent building plan resulted 
from extensive pre-design and 
schematic design meetings 
held with representatives from 
each of the reserve branches to 
assess their individual needs. 
The center is divided into 
two wings— one for Marine 
units and one for Navy units- 
joined by a building dedicated 
to mutual usage. The duality of 
the internal organization is 
expressed through two sepa- 
rate but parallel entrances artic- 
ulated by broad, glass-covered 
porticoes. A long, sky-lit cen- 
tral corridor houses the admin- 
istrative offices for each of the 
reserve units. A system of hall- 
ways and entrances into the 
proprietary spaces occupied by 
the respective units links them 
with the collectively used 
spaces, allowing for easy circu- 
lation and the articulation of 

the organization of the training 

Completed in 1987 for $10.8 
million, at a cost of $9 1 .50 per 
square foot, the Navy/Marine 
Training Center has proven to 
be a prudent investment. The 
new center now houses all the 
Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast 
Guard Reserves within the 
Front Range Region of Colo- 
rado. The consolidation of the 
different units into one location 
has allowed the different 
reserve units to work effec- 
tively with each other and to 
benefit from shared training 
activities. Furthermore, an 
economy of scale was achieved 
by integrating the units in one 
facility, resulting in continued 
operational savings. 

The building was designed 
and constructed using standard 
Navy design manuals as guide- 
lines as a demonstration of the 
Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast 
Guard's commitment to provid- 
ing superior facilities for 
reserve units and their mem- 
bers. This commitment has 
paid off. The Navy reports that 
recruitment rates for the 
reserves have increased signifi- 
cantly since the units moved 
from their previous locations to 
the new training center. 


U.S. Department of the Navy. 

Northern Division 


Philadelphia. PA 
Anderson Mason Dale. 

Denver. CO 


1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


U.S. Department off Housing 
and Urban Development 

Rail travel was once this 
nation's preeminent form of 
inter-city transportation. Monu- 
mental railroad stations were 
constructed to accommodate 
the crowds pouring into every 
major American city by train. 
At the time of their construc- 
tion, these stations embodied 
both the glamour and the eco- 
nomic importance of rail travel. 
Intended as focal points in 
urban design, they exhibited 
spectacular architectural and 
decorative features that cap- 
tured the spirit of the era. 

With the decline of rail travel 
in the 1950s, many stations 
had outlived their original pur- 
pose. Nashville, Tennessee, and 
St. Louis, Missouri, both had 
outdated stations that, by end 
of the 1970s, had fallen into 
disrepair. Both buildings were 
turn-of-the-century Roman- 
esque Revival buildings with 
soaring clock towers that had 
become fixtures on the cities' 
skylines. In Nashville and St. 
Louis, local citizens, private 
commerce, and local and fed- 
eral governments formed 
effective coalitions that enabled 
these landmark buildings to be 
adaptively reused. 

Union Station 
Nashville, Tennessee 

Effecting the transition of Nash- 
ville's Union Station from a 
nineteenth-century railroad ter- 
minal to a modern luxury hotel 
was a difficult challenge. 
Because Union Station is listed 
on the National Register of His- 
toric Places, renovations were 
supervised and monitored by 
state, federal, and local regula- 
tory agencies. The design pro- 
gram called for adapting the 
station to an economically via- 
ble use while preserving the 

historic character of the build- 
ing and upgrading its structural 
elements to modern code stan- 

Initial impetus for the $14.7 
million project came in the 
form of an $800,000 Urban 
Development Action Grant 
from the Department of Hous- 
ing and Urban Development 
(HUD). Contractors and design- 
ers worked closely with local 
HUD administrators, local pres- 
ervation groups, and state and 
federal agencies to ensure the 
rehabilitation was in accor- 
dance with the Secretary of 
Interior's stringent Standards 
for Historic Rehabilitation as 
well as local safety, fire, and 
handicapped access 

The completed rehabilitation 
project required 1 5 months of 
labor and close cooperation on 
the part of the design team, 
contractors, and local, state, 
and federal authorities. The 
resulting 120-room hotel has 
become a financial resource for 
the city and created over 300 
new jobs. It has attracted addi- 
tional nearby development and 
once again has become a sym- 
bol of Nashville's vitality and 
civic pride. 


U.S. Department of Housing and 

Urban Development, 

Community Planning Division. 

Knoxville. TN 
Knoxville Community 

Development Corporation. 

Knoxville. TN 
Metropolitan Development and 

Housing Agency. Nashville, TN 
Metropolitan Historical 

Commission, Nashville. TN 
Edwards and Hotchkiss 

Architects, Brentwood. TN 
Guill. Inc., Nashville. TN 

52 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


Union Station 

St. Louis, Missouri 

The rehabilitation of St. Louis' 
Union Station was undertaken 
on a considerably larger scale 
than that of Nashville's Union 
Station. The St. Louis station 
and its grounds were ten times 
larger and included the largest 
train shed in the world, cover- 
ing more than 1 1 acres. 
Research indicated that in 
order for the St. Louis project 
to be fiscally viable, the project 
would need to attract patrons 
from across the Midwest. 

The immensity of the under- 
taking required the involve- 
ment of a multi-disciplinary 
team that included numerous 
architects, subcontractors, and 

specialists. The effective collab- 
oration of the team resulted in 
the successful transformation of 
the once-unused station into a 
prosperous luxury hotel and 
festival marketplace. 

In most cases, period interior 
decoration was preserved and 
restored, exterior facades were 
refurbished, and creative struc- 
tural solutions were developed 
to bring interior modifications 
up to code without compromis- 
ing the integrity of the historic 
building. The renovation met 
strict design criteria issued by 
the Department of Interior, met 
all code requirements, and 
achieved a level of excellence 
that ensures the continued use 
of the building. 

Although the complexity of 
the renovation resulted in a 
$20 million cost overrun, the 
$155 million project is 
expected to cover these costs. 
A $10 million Urban Develop- 
ment Action Grant from the 
Department of Housing and 
Urban Development was fully 
repaid after 14 months, thanks 
to the 10 million visitors who 
passed through Union Station 
in a year and a half. The com- 
plex generates $4 million a 
year in tax revenues and has 
resulted in the creation of 

1,700 new jobs. The station's 
rehabilitation has also invig- 
orated a depressed neighbor- 
hood; more than $50 million 
in development is currently 
underway in the surrounding 
area. Thus, not only has an ail- 
ing landmark been revitalized, 
the project has proved to be a 
sound investment for the city 
of St. Louis. 


U.S. Department of Housing and 

Urban Development. 

Community Planning Division. 

St. Louis. MO 
The Rouse Co.. Columbia. MD 
Hellmuth. Obata &. Kassabaum. 

St. Louis. MO 
Communication Arts. Boulder. CO 
The George Office. Inc.. 

New York. NY 
Hirsch/Bedner Associates. 

Atlanta. GA 
Fisher &. Marantz. New York. NY 

53 1988 Prisidiniiai Design Awards 


Building by Design Program 
National Endowment for the Arts 


Council of Federal Interior Designers 
Washington, DC 
















"Building by Design" is an 
example of how the National 
Endowment for the Arts fulfills 
its mandate to foster excel- 
lence, diversity, availability, 
and appreciation of the arts in 
America. Established in 1986 
as an initiative of the Illinois 
Arts Council, the "Building by 
Design" Program addresses the 
critical need for well-designed 
cultural facilities throughout 
the state. The extensive scope 
of this project was made possi- 
ble by a $1 million appropria- 
tion from the Build Illinois 
economic development and 
infrastructure fund, but the ini- 
tial funding, incentive, and 
guidance for the program were 
the results of the involvement 
of the Design Arts Program of 
the Arts Endowment. 

Based on the principle that 
arts organizations can become 
partners in economic develop- 
ment and revitalization, "Build- 
ing by Design" encourages arts 
organizations to base design 
decisions for cultural facilities 
within the broader context of 
community-wide planning. 
The effectiveness of the pro- 
gram lies primarily in a four- 
step process through which 
arts organizations and commu- 
nities assess the public benefit, 

long-term programming needs, 
fiscal feasibility, and design 
quality of their proposed activi- 
ties. The facilities development 
process is supported at critical 
phases of design and planning 
rather than through funding 
actual construction. 

"Building by Design" focuses 
on the steps prior to construc- 
tion because the facility prob- 
lems of artists generally result 
from inappropriate and poorly 
designed spaces rather than a 
lack of space. This program's 
criteria for awarding design 
grants stress accessibility, effi- 
ciency, and technical and safety 
considerations. Recognizing 
that true access to the arts can- 
not be achieved simply by pro- 
viding funding to build 
facilities, "Building by Design" 
provides a comprehensive 
planning strategy that antici- 
pates common— and often 
costly— pitfalls, ensures viable 
future programming and finan- 
cial stability for cultural facili- 
ties, and leverages public and 
private support. 

By the first grant application 
deadline, the council received 
122 requests totaling $2.1 mil- 
lion. Of these, 72 applications 
were awarded grants totaling 
$750,000 for projects ranging 
from a planning study for a pro- 
posed maritime museum in 
Chicago to a needs-assessment 
survey for converting a city 
hall into a community cultural 
center. Success has been dem- 
onstrated by the scope the pro- 
gram has had in reaching 
diverse communities through- 
out the state. 


National Endowment for the 
Arts, Design Arts Program. 
Washington, DC 

Illinois Arts Council, Design 
Arts Program, Chicago. IL 

Work environments have a 
profound impact on productiv- 
ity. Disorganized, unhealthy, 
inefficient, or uncomfortable 
surroundings usually exert a 
negative impact on employees 
who must work within them. 
The federal government, the 
country's largest single land- 
lord, owns or leases more than 
four billion square feet of 
space. In the federal sector, the 
impact of the work environ- 
ment has profound 

In response to these con- 
cerns and to further increase 
the level of professionalism 
within the community of fed- 
eral designers, a small group of 
government-employed interior 
designers formed the Council 
of Federal Interior Designers. 
Since its first meeting in 1 984, 
the council has addressed sev- 
eral issues of crucial impor- 
tance to the maintenance of 
design quality in federal build- 
ings. The council initiated con- 
tact with the Office of 
Personnel Management to 
improve hiring guidelines and 
to raise professional standards 
for those seeking employment 
as federal interior designers. To 
encourage the highest profes- 
sional standards, the council 
requires its members to have 
passed a national qualification 
exam and supports professional 
licensing and certification 

Overall, the council serves as 
a forum to address the interests 
of federal designers and to pro- 
mote design excellence in the 
public sector. It publishes a 
quarterly bulletin and sponsors 
meetings and workshops for 
the more than 300 federal inte- 
rior designers. Standards and 
methodologies developed 
under its leadership are being 



































translated into improved design 
at the federal level, with better, 
more efficient interior spaces 
for government employees cre- 
ated at savings to the taxpayer. 
The Council of Federal Inte- 
rior Designers is run entirely 
by federal employees on their 
own time and at no cost to the 
government. It represents the 
efforts of federal employees tak- 
ing the initiative to improve 
their professional skills and fur- 
ther the cause of design excel- 
lence in the government. This 
is a strong and viable model for 
other federal workers who 
wish to implement positive 
change in their professions. 


Office of Personnel Management. 

Washington. DC 
Council of Federal Interior 

Designers. Washington. DC 

54 1988 Presidential Design Awards 



Alewife Station and Garage 
Cambridge, Massachusetts 

When pedestrian, car, bus, and 
rail commuters converge on 
one facility, chaos can easily 
result. The Alewife Station and 
Garage in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, however, has man- 
aged to successfully 
accommodate large numbers of 
people in a manner that is safe, 
efficient, comfortable, and visu- 
ally engaging. A recent addi- 
tion to the expanded 
Metropolitan Bay Transporta- 
tion Authority's (MBTA) Red 
Line, the Alewife complex was 
designed to intercept the 
waves of commuters driving to 
downtown Boston and Cam- 
bridge before they added to the 
congestion of dense urban 
neighborhoods. The design 
challenge, however, was to 

convince commuters to park 
their cars and take public trans- 
portation. This was done by 
creating an efficient, accessible, 
and safe complex that 
enhances the commuter expe- 
rience by providing a visual 
experience as well. 

Under construction for nine 
years, the $84 million transfer 
complex contains loading plat- 
forms for six subway trains, 
parking for 2,000 automobiles, 
a 1 2-berth bus platform, a pas- 
senger drop-off area, bicycle 
and pedestrian access areas, 
and support services. Most traf- 
fic enters the complex via a 
roadway link directly con- 
nected to a nearby expressway. 
Large volumes of traffic are 
readily absorbed without con- 
gestion by two double helix 
entrance and exit ramps, while 
another internal ramp handles 
traffic entering from local 
streets. The subway is accessi- 
ble from within the building 
itself or through outside 

Apart from creating a com- 
plex that would ease com- 
muter congestion in the city, 
Alewife's designers sought to 
create an environment that 
would welcome its users. A 
glass skylight floods the inte- 
rior of the vast courtyard with 
light. Glass-enclosed escalators 
enable people to orient them- 
selves within the structure and 
capture views of the land- 
scaped exterior. Color-coded 
garage floors and their connect- 
ing escalators, elevators, and 
passageways establish clearly 
defined circulation paths and 
enhance the vibrancy of the 
visual environment. 

The Alewife complex is fur- 
ther distinguished by the inclu- 
sion of art. Working with the 
Cambridge Arts Council, 

designers included artworks as 
an integral aspect of the design, 
not merely added as an after- 
thought. The result is a rich 
fusion of art and architecture 
that enhances the enjoyment 
of the users as they pass 
through the complex. But the 
Alewife station is more than an 
attractive commuter depot: its 
design offers technical benefits 
as well. Energy costs have 
been reduced (the structure 
itself is unheated) by drawing 
off heat from the subway trains. 
The enclosed bus platform can 
be opened in warm weather to 
enhance cross-ventilation. By 
incorporating underground 
storage and a landscaped basin, 
the new construction protects 
the existing floodplain and 
improves water runoff in the 
surrounding area. 

Public response to the station 
has been extraordinary. An 
MBTA study determined that 
54 percent of the Red Line 
ridership had access to cars but 
chose instead to ride the sub- 
way; ridership more than tri- 
pled in the first six months of 
operation. The absence of van- 
dalism, graffiti, or damage to 
the works of art further attests 
to the impact of the station's 
design and its effect on its 


U.S. Department of Transportation, 

Urban Mass Transportation 

Administration, Region 1 , 

Cambridge. MA 
Massachusetts Bay 

Transportation Authority, 

Boston, MA 
Ellenzweig Associates, Inc.. 

Cambridge, MA 
Sverdrup Corporation, 

Boston, MA 
LeMessurier Consultants, 

Cambridge. MA 
Mason & Frey. Belmont, MA 
Allan Davis Associates, Inc.. 

Norwalk, CT 

5 5 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


Restoration of the Secretary 
of the Navy's Office 
Washington, DC 

Built between 1871 and 1888, 
what is now known as the Old 
Executive Office Building 
(OEOB) was originally con- 
structed to house the Depart- 
ments of State, War, and Navy. 
Located on Pennsylvania Ave- 
nue adjacent to the White 
House, it currently houses 
offices for the President and 
Vice President of the United 
States and their senior advi- 
sors. Once it was the home of 
some of the finest Victorian 
interiors in the city, but over 
time, renovations and adapta- 
tions resulted in the total loss 
of several significant rooms, as 
well as severe damage to the 
historical integrity of many oth- 
ers. One such "lost" room was 
the office of the Secretary of 
the Navy. In 1985 this room 
was renovated under the auspi- 
ces of the General Services 

The goal of the 18-month 
renovation was to integrate an 
authentic restoration of the 
room's interior with the func- 
tional requirements of a mod- 
ern office. Through extensive 
research, and the skills of 
trained craftsmen, the room 
was returned to its original 
dimensions and the magnifi- 
cence of its interior was 
brought back to life. It was 
because of close supervision, 
ingenuity, and a precisely 
delineated design methodol- 
ogy, however, that this office 
was authentically restored and 
is now fully functional. 

Prior to the development of 
contract specifications, 
researchers from the OEOB 
Preservation Office collected 
available documentation of the 
room's original size and 
appearance. Scientific tests 
were performed on the office 
walls, and the original painted 

decoration was found beneath 
1 3 layers of paint. Chemical 
analysis of the original paint 
allowed for the successful res- 
toration, where possible, and 
recreation of the original color 
scheme. Intricately stenciled, 
hand-painted and gilded wall 
decorations were accurately 
replicated or restored. 

But all of this restoration had 
to be compatible with the dic- 
tates of a functioning, modern 
office. All wiring, plumbing, 
and utility shafts were replaced 
and upgraded, but installed to 
accommodate future additions 
or repairs; decorative surfaces 
were replicated on canvas 
rather than restored to facilitate 
access to mechanical and secu- 
rity systems; and electrical 
sockets and phone jacks were 
placed behind the original cast- 
iron baseboard, allowing for 
easy access and modification. 

The success of this project is 
due to both the extensive 
research by the OEOB Preser- 
vation Office, which ensured 
the restoration's historical accu- 
racy, and to GSA's intimate 
involvement with the project. 
Prior to construction, GSA con- 
tracted architects to devise pre- 
cise specifications and 
qualifications standards. This 
foresight and attention brought 
the complex decorative ele- 
ments in the room back to 
their original state and resulted 
in the restoration of one of 
Washington's most splendid 
federal interiors. 


General Services Administration. 

National Capital Region. 

Washington. DC 
Executive Office of the President. 

Office of Historic Preservation. 

Washington, DC 
Kemnitzer. Reid &. Haffler. 

Architects. Washington. DC 

56 1988 PkisiohNTiAi Design Awards 




U.S. Post Office 

Kings Mountain, North Carolina 

The U.S. Postal Service has a 
long tradition of public archi- 
tecture, often executed on a 
grand scale, that communicates 
ideals of service, reliability, and 
permanence. The designers of 
a new post office in Kings 
Mountain, North Carolina, 
were faced with a double chal- 
lenge: how to create a building 
that articulated the ideals of the 
Postal Service but did not 
exceed strict budgetary 

The building resulted from a 
practical design approach that 
divided the structure into three 
functional components. The 
section of the post office that 
handles the bulk of its opera- 
tions was conceived as a 
warehouse-like block to 
streamline the activities of 
postal employees who unload, 
sort, and process the mail. 
From the outside, this section 
appears highly utilitarian and 
expresses cost-conscious 
design to the public. This block 
also serves as the base from 
which the remaining two 
sections spring. 

The second section is com- 
prised of a raised plinth and 
glass enclosure that houses the 
area devoted to interaction 
with the public. The character 
of the interior is reminiscent of 
the grand scale of older federal 
buildings; its atmosphere is elo- 
quent but not rarified. The 
architecture here conveys the 
sense of importance attached to 
civic spaces. The third section 
consists of a free-standing col- 
onnade that runs parallel to the 
street. Apart from establishing 
a bold profile for the post 
office, the colonnade echoes 
forms used in traditional, classi- 
cally inspired federal 

The use of inexpensive 
industrial materials— glass, 
brick, and cement— made the 
construction process speedy 
and comparatively inexpen- 
sive. The extensive use of glass 
also exploited the benefits of 
passive solar heat and natural 
light, reducing electrical costs. 
The designers were able to 
bring function, utility, and 
grace to this civic building by 
being as pragmatic as they 
were inventive. This process 
was facilitated by designating a 
higher price per square foot for 
the public spaces than for the 
working areas. The project was 
completed on schedule for 
under $900,000. 


U.S. Postal Service. Design and 

Construction Branch. Atlanta. GA 
The FWA Group. Charlotte, NC 

57 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


Housing for the Elderly 

Upper Eastern Shore, Maryland 

Public-assistance housing 
projects pose a particularly dif- 
ficult design challenge: how to 
meet the needs of a specific 
group on a large scale, develop 
and maintain humane stan- 
dards, and not exceed limited 
funding parameters. A novel 
housing project for the elderly 
on Maryland's Eastern Shore 
has succeeded in providing 

'■■ i ■•! r - •[ 

• ■ • " - _._: III d \ 


shelter without sacrificing the 
amenities to which its resi- 
dents were accustomed. 

The mission of the $4 mil- 
lion project was to develop and 
construct 132 rental units for 
the area's senior citizens most 
in need of affordable housing. 
Rather than create a massive 
complex, the planners and 
designers decided to scatter the 
units through six towns in five 
counties. By scattering the 
units in clusters that mimicked 
the neighborhoods in which 
the intended occupants previ- 
ously lived, they created a new 
"community" that engendered 
strong support from local resi- 
dents and reinforced the occu- 
pants' familial, social, and 
community ties. 

This scheme was made 

feasible by developing a 
modular construction system 
that allowed the same 
elements to be configured in 
different ways. Small, intimate 
villages are typically composed of 
16- to 30-unit clusters oriented 
around a central "village green" 
The clusters themselves are 
made up of four-unit dwellings 
built on the scale of a regular 
house. These "houses" exhibit 
many features commonly 
associated with Eastern Shore 
architecture: brick masonry, 
horizontal siding, pitched roofs, 
and front porches. 

The use of a four-unit struc- 
ture as a standardized proto- 
type kept construction costs to 
a minimum; work crews 
quickly discovered the pitfalls 
in assembly; and various con- 
figurations were made possible 
by changing site relationships. 
As a result, sturdy, desirable, 
humane housing was created at 
an average cost of $30,846 per 
one-bedroom unit. The 
project's success can be mea- 
sured by the communities' 
response: before construction 
was completed, all units had 
been filled. 


U.S. Department of Housing and 
Urban Development. Baltimore 
Office. Baltimore. MD 
Roger K. Lewis. Washington. DC 
John W. Hill. Baltimore. MD 

58 1988 Presidential Dhsicn Awards 



Mount St. Helens Visitor Center 
Castle Rock, Washington 

Mount St. Helens Visitor Cen- 
ter is but one part of a larger 
master development plan 
intended for the National Vol- 
canic Monument. Long before 
the 1980 eruption of Mount St. 
Helens, representatives from 
the state and federal govern- 
ments, together with local gov- 
ernments and citizens, initiated 
an intensive analysis of the 
needs and requirements for 
such a facility. Their foresight 
proved to be timely, for after 
the eruption, Mount St. Helens 
became the focus of interna- 
tional interest and media 

This well-planned visitors' 
center accommodates and edu- 
cates the increased number of 
visitors coming to Mount St. 
Helens. Situated on the shore 
of Silver Lake, the visitors' cen- 
ter affords a sweeping view of 
the volcano across the water. 
The center takes its design 
cues from its surroundings: the 
volcano itself, the pristine lake, 
and stands of centuries-old 
Douglas fir trees. The structure 
is reminiscent of a cathedral, 
with a steeply pitched glass 
roof supported on the interior 
by 1 2 massive western red 
cedar columns. The building is 
executed in what its designers 
term a "Cascadian" idiom, but 
it also echoes the style of other 
Forest Service buildings. This 
contextual, historic design 
theme is further expanded 
inside with details such as 
carvings that depict Northwest- 
ern landscape scenes and car- 
pentry that highlights the skill 
of local carpenters. 

The center also includes a 
theater with 1 6 projectors 
capable of accommodating a 
multi-media presentation and 
exhibits that recount the 
history of the area and the 

eruption. The combination 
of natural splendor and 
sensitive design has made the 
Mount St. Helens Visitor Center 
one of the most popular 
tourist attractions in the area; 
during the first year in service, 
more than 500,000 visitors 
passed through its doors. 
At a cost of $5.5 million, the 
center has proven itself to be 
a thoughtful investment in the 
preservation and enjoyment of 
this splendid national park. 


U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

Forest Service. Pacific Northwest 

Region, Portland. OR 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. 

Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot 

National Forest. Vancouver. WA 
SRG Partnership, Portland. OR 
Henry Klein Partnership. 

Mt. Vernon, WA 
Edelman and Associates. 

Portland. OR 
)oe Valasek, Newberg, OR 

59 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



U.S. Department of State 

Apart from housing our 
nation's diplomatic representa- 
tives overseas, embassies also 
serve as tangible symbols of 
America's interests in foreign 
countries. Recognizing the 
importance of projecting a posi- 
tive presence in other coun- 
tries, the Office of Foreign 
Buildings Operations (FBO) of 
the U.S. Department of State 
(the agency responsible for 
overseeing the design and con- 
struction of all diplomatic facili- 
ties) developed guidelines that 
integrate security requirements 
and sound principles of archi- 
tectural design. The result is 
the construction of diplomatic 
buildings that guarantee the 
safety of their workers while 
expressing through their 
design the principles of a free 
society. Two U.S. embassies 
recently erected in Asia suc- 
cessfully embody the spirit of 
the FBO's design criteria and 
ensure the safety and security 
of those who work and live 

U.S. Embassy 

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 

The design of the new U.S. 
embassy in Kuala Lumpur, 
Malaysia, demonstrates the 
successful integration of 
appearance, purpose, and 
appropriateness. A building of 
this type must be secure; it 
must be defensible against 
attack, protect its contents and 
the activities that take place 
within, and safeguard those 
who work there. But addition- 
ally, in keeping with FBO 
guidelines, the new building's 
design had to be of a high cali- 
ber in its own right, as well as 
sympathetic to the local archi- 
tecture. Stylistically, these 
requirements were met by tak- 
ing design clues from indige- 
nous Malaysian architecture 
and from colonial structures 
built during the 1920s and 

The embassy was con- 
structed from a poured con- 
crete frame with solid masonry 
walls, steel-framed floor-to- 
ceiling windows, and concrete 
railings. While these materials 
meet security concerns, the 
windows and verandas impart 
a sense of lightness to the 
structure and open up its inte- 
rior spaces. The integration of 
overhanging roofs and an east- 
west orientation (to exploit the 
prevailing winds) are practical 
amenities that have reduced 
the drain on the embassy's 
cooling system. Since a local 
contractor was used to build 
the compound, every effort 
was made to incorporate tradi- 
tional materials into the design, 
thereby reducing construction 
costs and ensuring that the 
experience of the contractor 
was used to the fullest extent. 

The main compound, con- 
sisting of embassy offices and 
the U.S. Information Service, 
shares a mutual foundation that 
contains parking spaces, ware- 
houses, and support services. 
By staggering the elements 
within the 100,000-square-foot 
compound, a more hospitable 
scale was achieved. 

The new embassy has been 
well received both by embassy 
staff and by local authorities 
and citizens. At the dedication, 
a Malaysian advocate for his- 
toric preservation suggested 
that the new embassy be 
declared a historic monument, 
proving that thoughtful design 
can not only meet practical 
considerations but can also be 
a diplomatic tool. The $8 mil- 
lion project, including furnish- 
ings and interior design, was 
completed on schedule in 
1983 with sufficient funds 
remaining to build a Marine 
Guard Quarters and convert an 
adjacent house into a recrea- 
tional facility. 


U.S. Department of State. 

Office of Foreign Buildings 

Operations. Washington. DC 
Hartman-Cox Architects. 

Washington, DC 
James Madison Cutts Associates. 

Washington. DC 
Vincent Lee-Thorp Consulting 

Engineers, McLean. VA 

60 1988 Pkisidiniiai Design Awards 


U.S. Embassy 
Colombo, Sri Lanka 

As with the U.S. embassy in 
Kuala Lumpur, a new embassy 
in Colombo, Sri Lanka, com- 
bines practical necessity with 
design excellence. In both 
cases, the mandate was similar: 
to design and construct an 
embassy compound that was 
secure, expressive of U.S. dig- 
nity and strength, and appro- 
priate for its location. 

In Colombo, extra consider- 
ation was given to the habits 
and opinions of local Sri 
Lankans. The building site 
overlooked the Indian Ocean, 
an important element in the 
country's economic and cul- 
tural life. Bearing this in mind, 
the architect sited the building 
so that it was perpendicular to 
the sea, mitigating any obstruc- 
tion of the view. The character 
of the building reflects the tradi- 
tion of indigenous architecture 

while harmonizing with 
the neighboring British High 

The use of such traditional 
materials as granite, Burma 
teak, and locally made roofing 
tiles reduced costs and helped 
to integrate the structure with 
existing buildings. Protective 
grilles were designed to resem- 
ble Indian decorative patterns, 
thereby minimizing their intru- 
sion as security features. 
Deeply set, oversized win- 
dows, a steeply pitched roof, 
and overhanging eaves reduce 
the sun's glare and shed the 
monsoon rains while adding 
visual distinction to the build- 
ing as a symbol of the U.S. pres- 
ence in Sri Lanka. 

Completed in 1984 for $7 
million, the embassy in 
Colombo, like the one in Kuala 
Lumpur, unifies security con- 
cerns and elegance of form 
with a sensitive respect for its 



U.S. Department of State. 
Office of Foreign Buildings 
Operations. Washington. DC 

Victor A. Lundy. Houston. TX 

6 I 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


Recreational Center 
Karlsruhe, West Germany 


Bear Valley Visitor Center 
Point Reyes, California 

Housing 18 bowling lanes, 
spectator areas, and food ser- 
vice facilities, this recreational 
center for U.S. personnel is 
notable for its popularity, its 
practical approach to design, 
and its creative play on the sur- 
rounding environment. Since 
its opening, the center has 
drawn bowlers and visitors 
from all over central Germany. 

The result of collaboration 
among Army engineers and 
local architects, planners, and 
contractors, the $2.9 million 
building exhibits an interesting 
form. With its four exterior 
walls sloping up to a flat roof, 
the center resembles a trun 
cated pyramid. Walls are cov- 
ered with standing-seam 
aluminum, which casts a play- 
ful rhythm of light and shadow 
across the facade, imitating the 
surrounding jagged hills, and 
reflecting the changing sky. 
The building's mass is punctu- 
ated only by a glass-enclosed 
entrance, windows, and a glass 
atrium that houses the 

Consideration given to 
details is everywhere apparent 
in the facility. The aluminum 
cladding used to cover the facil- 
ity was cost-effective to pur- 
chase and install. Throughout 
the facility, double-glazed insu- 
lating glass was used to reduce 
heating and ventilation costs 

year-round. Two man-made, 
earthen hills along the sides of 
the building help absorb the 
sounds from inside and serve 
to further insulate the building. 
The area surrounding the cen- 
ter has been carefully land- 
scaped for recreational use. A 
small pond, picnic areas, and a 
grass-covered earthen pyramid 
encourage the center's use by 
families and visitors. Beyond 
the landscaped perimeter, the 
land has been left in its natural 
wooded state, and is ideal for 
short hikes and nature walks. 

The Army's inclusion of local 
architects and planners in the 
development of the project 
helped to ensure that the final 
design would be accepted and 
appreciated by the local popu- 
lation. U.S. military personnel 
and their families have 
responded enthusiastically to 
the recreational center, and it 
has become an important, 
morale-boosting social center. 
The success of the project was 
further demonstrated by its 
selection as the site for the 
1988 Youth World Games 
bowling competition. 


U.S. Department of the Army, 
Engineer Division, Europe, 
Frankfurt, West Germany 

Staatliches Hochbauamt II, 
Karlsruhe, West Germany 

Dipl-lng Rainer Disse — Freier, 
Karlsruhe, West Germany 

The Point Reyes National Sea- 
shore was founded in 1962. 
Every year since then, atten- 
dance at this national park has 
increased, with 2.1 million vis- 
itors now passing through 
annually. It had long been a 
priority to construct a visitors' 
reception and educational cen- 
ter for the park, but federal 
funding was unavailable. 
Responding to this need, the 
Coastal Parks Association, a 
non-profit promotional organi- 
zation for interpretive and edu- 
cational activities, initiated a 
funding drive that eventually 

basic functions were other 
important considerations such 
as the center's relation to the 
surrounding natural environ- 
ment, the incorporation of pas- 
sive and non-polluting energy 
conservation techniques, and 
full handicapped access. 

Apart from the pleasant 
atmosphere of the interior, the 
center is a valuable resource 
for information about natural 
life in the coastal environment. 
Exhibits with maps, informa- 
tion, photographs, and diora- 
mas are presented regularly. 
The center also houses a 

raised $ 1 .4 million for the con- 
struction of the Bear Valley 
Visitor Center. 

Working together, the 
National Park Service and the 
Coastal Parks Association coor- 
dinated the efforts of over 30 
different organizations, includ- 
ing conservation groups, busi- 
ness groups, local chambers of 
commerce, and advisory com- 
missions. From the beginning 
of the design process, public 
input was regularly solicited at 
many public meetings and 
design-concept presentations. 
This extensive public dialogue 
was crucial in tailoring the 
design of the center to provide 
both basic and expanded 
visitor services. 

The center was designed pri- 
marily as a clearinghouse and 
educational resource for the 
park's visitors. Added to these 

research library to accommo- 
date more serious inquiries 
into the region. Although this 
center was made possible 
entirely through private dona- 
tions, the collaborative nature 
of the project and the contin- 
ued involvement of the Park 
Service throughout the design 
process and construction 
resulted in a facility whose 
content and services are on a 
par with the excellence exhib- 
ited by its design. The center is 
currently used by more than 
300,000 visitors annually. 


U.S. Department of the Interior. 

National Park Service, Point 

Reyes National Seashore. 

Point Reyes, CA 
Bull Volkman Stockwell. 

San Francisco, CA 
Daniel Quan Design, 

San Francisco. CA 

62 1988 Pkjsidiniiai Dish, n Awards 



Technology Center 

Gaborone, Republic of Botswana 


Fifth Street Renovation 
Santa Monica, California 

The Botswana Technology 
Center is seemingly a paradox. 
Its design incorporates sophisti- 
cated alternative heating and 
cooling systems, but its siting, 
plan, and profile reflect the 
indigenous village architecture 
of its surroundings. The cen- 
ter's purpose was to demon- 
strate the architectural 
applications of energy strate- 
gies that eliminate the need for 
fossil-fuel heating and cooling 
in small office buildings. The 
design of this prototypical 
structure responded to infor- 
mation collected by the U.S. 
Agency for International Devel- 
opment that showed that high 
fuel costs and limited energy 
resources were a hindrance to 
economic growth in Africa. 

Techniques employed in the 
construction of the Center 
demonstrate that the use of 
alternative energy sources is 
both effective and cost- 
efficient. The center, which 
includes a library, administra- 
tion building, workshop, and 
demonstration area, is cooled 
and heated largely through a 
passive solar system, thereby 
taking advantage of one of Afri- 
ca's most abundant resources. 

Shaded porches, operable 
clerestory windows, indoor 
pools, and ceiling fans augment 
the efficiency of the system 
while remaining firmly within 
the character of the local 

The success of this building's 
design was fostered by an on- 
going dialogue among its users, 
architects, contractors, and 
engineers, a process which 
ensured a result that would not 
only succeed technically but 
also aesthetically. The build- 
ing's total thermal load was 
reduced by 70 percent; it uses 
no fossil fuel except that 
required for cooking. At a total 
cost of $ 1 50,000, the Botswana 
Technology Center demonstrates 
the benefits of passive and 
renewable energy systems 
while conveying the presence 
of the United States as benefi- 
cial and sensitive to local con- 


U.S. Agency for International 
Development. Gaborone, 
Republic of Botswana 

Associates in Rural Development. 
Inc., Burlington, VT 

Davidson Norris. New York, NY 

TEA Inc., Harrisville. NH 

Affordable, subsidized rental 
housing is needed all over the 
country but in many cases is 
cost-prohibitive. A modest ren- 
ovation project in Santa 
Monica, California, demon- 
strates the fiscal viability of 
rehabilitating existing struc- 
tures and converting them into 
quality residential units for 
low-income families. In Santa 
Monica's Ocean Park neighbor- 
hood, a turn-of-the-century 

parts of the original structure. 
Expediency and cost-saving 
measures were consistently 
balanced with architectural 
considerations. Despite the 
damage to the structure, the 
exterior of the building was 
restored to its original condi- 
tion. Restoration of the interior 
was not feasible for multi- 
residential use, but a sophisti- 
cated adaptation successfully 
re-utilized the building. 

building stood abandoned and 
severely damaged by fire and 

Collaboration among a local 
non-profit development corpo- 
ration, an architect, a bank, and 
the federal government was 
instrumental in effecting the 
change from ruin to residence. 
Federal support for this project 
came from the Department of 
Housing and Urban Develop- 
ment's Rental Rehabilitation 
Program. A local bank re- 
financed the property through 
a construction loan made possi- 
ble by long-term, tax-exempt 
financing, and pre-develop- 
ment costs were borne 
by the Local Initiatives Support 
Corporation, a philanthropic 
development corporation with 
experience in renovating dete- 
riorated housing. 

During the design process, 
care was taken to assess the 
viability of saving or restoring 

The renovation created six 
desirable units. To provide rent 
subsidies, proceeds from the 
rental of one unit at the market 
rate of $ 1 ,400 per month were 
applied to the remaining five 
apartments. This low-income 
housing project demonstrates 
that effective planning and 
design can create cost-effective 
housing equal in quality to 
rental housing on the open 
market. The total cost of pur- 
chasing and renovating the 
property was $421,000; in 
1987 it was appraised at 


U.S. Department of Housing 

and Urban Development. 

Community Planning Division, 

Los Angeles, CA 
Community Corporation of 

Santa Monica, 

Santa Monica. CA 
Mario Fonda-Bonardi, 

Santa Monica. CA 

63 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


U.S. Court of Appeals/Federal Building 
Pasadena, California 


Waterfront Garages 
Charleston, South Carolina 

By 1980, the Vista del Arroyo 
Hotel in Pasadena, California, a 
grand luxury hotel dating from 
the 1930s and listed on the 
National Register of Historic 
Places, had seen better days. 
Additions made in the 1940s 
had diluted the power and 
unity of its architecture. Add- 
ing insult to injury, the building 
had been abandoned in 1975 
and stood vacant for more than 
five years. Now, however, 
thanks to a sensitive and practi- 
cal restoration, the old hotel 
houses the U.S. Court of 
Appeals for the Ninth District 
and other federal offices. 

The difficulties attendant to 
successful restoration were, in 
this case, significant. The build- 
ing, through modification and 
disrepair, had lost much of its 
structural and architectural 
integrity. The original architec- 
tural elements of the building 
needed to be restored to their 
original condition, but signifi- 
cant improvements to the infra- 
structure were also necessary to 
adapt the building to its new use. 
The existing infrastructure was 
improved with reinforced con- 
crete shear walls from the base- 
ment to the rafters, upgrading its 

structural capacity to meet 
contemporary seismic regulations. 
The exterior was restored to 
its original appearance as well, 
with new stucco, paint, and a 
landscape plan reminiscent of 
the original complex. 

The success of this 
building's restoration owes 
much to the involvement of 
the Ninth Circuit Court judges, 
whose approval of each stage 
of the design process was a 
contractual obligation, and to 
several Pasadena historic pres- 
ervation organizations whose 
approval was wisely solicited 
early in the design process. 

The project cost $8.2 million 
and was completed on sched- 
ule, despite the fact that a large 
wooden section of the building 
burned down during the four- 
year construction process. 


General Services Administration, 

Region 9, San Francisco. CA 
Neptune and Thomas Associates. 

Pasadena, CA 
Archer-Spencer Engineering 


San Francisco, CA 
Befu-Donan &. Associates. 

Pasadena, CA 

With some $87 million in pub- 
lic and private investment 
hanging in the balance, 
Charleston, South Carolina, 
required some 1,000 additional 
parking spaces to accommo- 
date the expected increase in 
commercial activity in its 
downtown historic district. 
Mayor Joseph P. Riley, Jr., and 
local preservation groups were 
adamant that parking facilities 
not detract from the charming 
ambiance and historic integrity 
of the downtown area. An 
ingeniously simple, yet thor- 
oughly developed, architec- 
tural program enabled the 
garages to be built without 
adversely affecting the fabric of 
the historic neighborhood. 

Rather than construct con- 
ventional parking structures, 
the designers disguised the 
garage exteriors by applying an 
architectural skin in harmony 
with the surrounding build- 
ings. Interiors consisting of the 
access ramps and the spaces 
themselves are concealed from 
the outside by wide columns 
and pre-cast spandrels covered 
with a light coat of stucco, a 
material used on the facades of 
many historic buildings nearby. 
Between the columns, a sys- 
tem of louvers, set behind 
white pre-cast panels and trim, 
conceals the bumpers and head- 
lights of the cars parked inside. 
From the street, the building is 
unobtrusive and in sympathy 

with the neighborhood. 

While maintaining an archi- 
tectural style appropriate to 
this historic district, the two 
garage facilities also proved to 
be economical. Building mate- 
rials were relatively inexpen- 
sive, readily available, and 
familiar to the local contractors. 
The project was supported by a 
HUD Urban Development 
Action Grant that was part of a 
larger plan to revitalize 
Charleston's downtown, but 
the rigorous adherence to 
design standards enabled the 
project to be both financially 
successful and popular locally. 
The project was completed for 
$5.7 million— 23 percent less 
than the final design estimate. 


U.S. Department of Housing 

and Urban Development, 

Community Planning Division, 

Columbia, SC 
City of Charleston. 

Charleston. SC 
Sasaki Associates. Inc.. 

Watertown, MA 
Mitchell. Small. Donohue and 

Logan, Charleston, SC 
LeMessurier Consultants, 

Cambridge, MA 

64 1 988 Presidential Design Awari s 


We at the Department of the Interior 
have a special awareness of the major 
role that public design plays in the 
day-to-day lives of all Americans. High 
quality design is essential in our mission 
of providing information and services 
to people — to all people. 

We as a nation must continue to strive 
for high quality design that enhances 
our way of life, and public design 
should set the standard for our national 
design ethic. Design is of high quality 
when it equitably serves all members of 
our society, recognizes and protects our 
rich cultural heritage, and is in harmony 
with our superlative national landscape. 

Manuel Lujan, Jr. 


U.S Department of the Interior 


Fort Custer National Cemetery 
Fort Custer, Michigan 

There are over 1 00 national 
cemeteries overseen by the 
Department of Veterans Affairs, 
the federal agency charged 
with providing burial benefits 
and interment facilities for 
American veterans. A new vet- 
erans' cemetery in Fort Custer, 
Michigan, departs radically in 
its organization and design 
approach from the traditional, 
formal grid pattern typical of 
national cemeteries, such as 
Arlington National Cemetery. 
While maintaining an appro- 
priate character of quiet dignity 
and formal reserve, the Fort 
Custer cemetery, situated in 
the rural landscape of southern 
Michigan, was designed to 
exist in close harmony with 
the surrounding countryside. 
Wooded lanes connecting the 
site's facilities pass through an 
impressive landscape that 
includes pine stands, wetlands, 
marshes, and gently rolling 
hills. The interment facilities 

are surrounded by a natural 
environment that lends an 
atmosphere of serenity and 
reflection to the 740-acre site. 

This new approach to 
national cemetery design 
resulted not only from local 
veterans' participation but also 
from budgetary strictures and 
maintenance concerns. The 
resulting design of Fort Custer 
addresses all of these concerns 
in an elegantly unified solu- 
tion. The grounds provide vet- 
erans and their families a 
beautiful, natural setting that 
duly honors their sacrifices. By 
choosing to enhance and 
exploit the rural nature of the 
location, designers kept restora- 
tion and development costs to 
a minimum, and maintenance 
costs of a large-scale, mani- 
cured landscape are avoided. 

From the outset, the Fort 
Custer National Cemetery, 
which serves six midwestern 
states, was envisioned not only 
as a memorial but also as a 
national, regional, and local 
resource. By expanding the 
concept of the cemetery to 
include the ideas of a natural 
resource and park, Fort Custer 
underscores the values of 
honor, permanence, and recog- 
nition for those who are 
interred there. 

The initial phase of the Fort 
Custer National Cemetery 
project was completed in 1 985 
at a cost of $2 million and cur- 
rently provides 20,000 burial 
sites. When completed, the 
facility will accommodate 
84,000 grave sites. 


U.S. Department of Veterans 
Affairs. Office of Facilities, 
Washington, DC 

Johnson. Johnson & Roy. 
Ann Arbor, Ml 

66 1°88 Presidential Design Awards 



Arts on the Line Program 

Urban Mass Transportation Administration 

Begun in 1 978, Arts on the 
Line has evolved into a 
national model for commission- 
ing permanent artworks for 
transit sites. Boston was one of 
three cities to receive Depart- 
ment of Transportation funding 
under the new Design, Art, 
and Architecture Program. 
Using those initial funds as an 
impetus for further develop- 
ment, the Massachusetts Bay 
Transportation Authority 
(MBTA) and the Cambridge 
Arts Council created Arts on 
the Line to facilitate the inte- 
gration of art in public transit 

The pilot program for Arts on 
the Line, completed in 1985, 
was the commissioning and 
installation of 20 site-specific 
works of art in four new sub- 
way stations on Boston's Red 
Line Northwest extension, cre- 
ating the largest art collection 
in a transportation setting in 
the United States. Arts on the 
Line formulated a democratic 
procedure for the selection of 
art and artists. Art committees 
composed of representatives 
from the residential and busi- 
ness community in the area, 
station architects and design- 
ers, and officials of the MBTA, 
City of Cambridge Develop- 
ment Department, and Histori- 
cal Commission were formed 
for each station, ensuring that 
the art selected met the spe- 
cific needs of each station. 
Selection criteria included aes- 
thetics, safety considerations, 
lasting artistic value, and main- 
tenance requirements. An 
open call for entries resulted in 
a slide registry representing 
more than 650 artists from 
across the country. 

By adopting the Cambridge 
Arts Council's democratic 
artist-selection procedure, Arts 

on the Line created an innova- 
tive design-selection process 
that considered how commis- 
sioned works would relate to 
one another and to the archi- 
tecture, and which works were 
of sufficient aesthetic vitality 
and durability to remain for 
decades to come. 

The process of developing 
Arts on the Line was recorded 
in Arts on the Line— A Public 
Art Handbook and in an award- 
winning documentary film. 
These materials have become 
the primary reference for any 
municipality considering the 
development of an art-in-transit 
program. Arts on the Line 
stands out as an innovative 
program that has demonstrated 
the viability of public art in a 
commuter setting and serves as 
a model for the burgeoning 
field of public art. 


U.S. Department of Transportation, 
Urban Mass Transportation 
Administration, Region I, 
Cambridge, MA 

Massachusetts Bay Transportation 
Authority, Boston, MA 

Cambridge Arts Council, 
Cambridge, MA 

67 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


Eagles Roost Area Bank Stabilization 
Missouri River, South Dakota 


Buffalo Point Campground 

Buffalo National River, Harrison, Arkansas 

In 1974 the federal govern- 
ment obtained 780 acres of 
wooded land along the Mis- 
souri River with privately 
donated funds. The land, 
known as the Karl E. Mundt 
National Wildlife Refuge, was 
used by bald eagles as a winter 
nesting area. Soil erosion anal- 
ysis along the riverbank indi- 
cated that a loss of trees would 
result by the end of the cen- 
tury if conditions were left 
unchanged, thereby endanger- 
ing the eagles' winter habitat. 
Erosion would have to be 
checked without destroying 
access to the riverbank, endan- 
gering trees, or further affect- 
ing the environment. 

The conventional approach 
to erosion prevention- 
installation of massive stone 
retaining walls known as rip- 
rap along the upper part of the 
riverbank— would have 
intruded on the natural envi- 
ronment, however, and 
destroyed much of the upper 
river bank. A sensitive design 
approach was therefore 

required, and the Army Corps 
of Engineers responded. In 
partnership with the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, the Corps 
undertook a two-year stabiliza- 
tion project in 1982 during 
which a series of low-level 
retaining walls (revetments) 
was constructed near the 
waterline on the right bank of 
the river. By using a number of 
revetments with spaces 
between each, engineers held 
the cost of the project and the 
number of trees removed to a 
minimum. By submerging the 
revetments, they preserved 
valuable upper bank environ- 
ments. This procedure 
improved the visual quality of 
the bank and saved the river- 
side trees for bald eagle nest- 
ing. Since their installation, the 
revetments have been over- 
grown by natural vegetation 
that disguises the crucial func- 
tion they perform in protecting 
the riverbank. 


U.S. Department of the Army, 

Corps of Engineers, 

Omaha District, Omaha, NE 
U.S. Department of the Army, 

Corps of Engineers, 

Missouri River District, 

Omaha, NE 

Public campgrounds often 
exhibit the measure of their 
popularity in a state of physical 
degradation, the natural result 
of frequent, rigorous use. Such 
was the case with the Buffalo 
Point Campground, a popular 
state park, when it was incor- 
porated into the Buffalo River 
National River preserve. The 
National Park Service had 
inherited a deteriorating facility 
whose condition was aggra- 
vated by over-use of individual 
camp sites and the increasing 
use of all terrain vehicles 
(ATVs). Steep grades in the 
area became washed-out roads, 
many sites were stripped of all 
grass, and soil erosion and 
compaction created unsafe con- 
ditions for ATVs as well as 
campers. Comfort stations 
were difficult to reach and 
access to them was all but 
impossible for handicapped 

effective design that addressed 

The new design used local 
materials to re-grade the road 
and make it less vulnerable to 
deterioration. Four loop roads 
connecting 83 campsites were 
strengthened with engineering 
fabric and a gravel base course 
to enhance drainage of periodic 
inundation and wet springs. 
Individual campsites were 
enclosed by low, dry-laid stone 
retaining walls that limited the 
impact on existing vegetation, 
made the sites relatively level, 
and enhanced the sense of pri- 
vacy for each campsite. Site 
amenities such as benches and 
comfort stations were executed 
in natural wood, and bollards, 
gates, and fences were built in 
heavy timber. 

The $2 million renovation 
has greatly enhanced the 
appearance, utility, and accessi- 
bility of the campsite and has 

Today, however, the Buffalo 
Point Campground is a well- 
maintained, accessible recrea- 
tion site that is as popular with 
tent campers as it is with ATV 
enthusiasts. This transforma- 
tion was achieved through a 
careful analysis of the problems 
particular to the site and the 
implementation of a simple, 

led to an 80 percent reduction 
in maintenance costs and util- 
ity downtime. 


U.S. Department of the Interior. 
National Park Service, 
Denver Service Center, 
Denver. CO 

68 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 



Visual Prioritization Process 

General Hitchcock Highway, Tucson, Arizona 

Surrounded by spectacular 
scenery, the General Hitchcock 
Highway in Tucson, Arizona, 
was viewed as much as a local 
natural resource as a means of 
traversing the Catalina Moun- 
tains. When a proposal arose to 
widen the 25-mile highway, 
concerns were naturally raised 
over the impact any expansion 
might have on the visual integ- 
rity of the site. This concern 
was heightened because of 
minimal resources allotted to 
the project for preserving the 
natural environment. 

In response to the proposed 
expansion, landscape architects 
at the Coronado National For- 
est developed the Visual 
Prioritization Process (VPP), an 
inventory and analysis method- 
ology that provided a quantifi- 
able means of determining 
where limited funds could be 
best spent to mitigate intrusion 
upon the natural scenery. The 
VPP results in a map of the 
area for which new construc- 
tion is slated, establishing 
"Visual Priority Levels" (VPLs) 
that indicate the visual sensitiv- 
ity to the observer. Mitigation 
measures are then enacted 
according to an area's VPL; 
thus, a site with a high VPL 
would receive more attention 
and more resources than one 
with a low VPL. 

Five visual criteria were used 
to identify and rate Visual Pri- 
ority Levels: the distance from 
the viewer, the angle of view, 
the duration of the view, the 
scale of the construction area 
(cut or fill), and whether the 
new cut or fill would be seen 
in silhouette. The scenery 
along the General Hitchcock 
Highway is characterized by 
steep mountainous terrain, 
rough canyons, and panoramic 
ridge and valley views. The 

Environmental Assessment of 
the area established that pres- 
ervation of these scenic 
resources was among the pub- 
lic's major concerns. 

The VPP builds upon the For- 
est Service's own Visual Man- 
agement System, a large-scale 
visual inventory and manage- 
ment process that has been 
used extensively for the past 
1 5 years. The creation of the 
Visual Prioritization Process 
allowed the entire project to 
remain within "retention," the 
Forest Service's most stringent 
visual management objective. 
An innovative and successful 
tool, the Visual Prioritization 
Process provides a rational, 
quantifiable means of identify- 
ing priorities and goals and 
then translates these into fixed 
dollar amounts. It acknowl- 
edges that a range of 
priorities— even those which 
seemingly conflict— can exist 
simultaneously within a given 
project. In the case of the Gen- 
eral Hitchcock Highway, the 
process allowed for the preser- 
vation of priority areas and the 
expansion of the highway. 

Although federal highway 
engineers who worked on the 
project were initially con- 
cerned about the costs 
incurred by visual mitigation 
procedures, ultimately they 
were comfortable working 
under the VPP guidelines 
because they were specific, 
quantifiable, and could be 
directly translated into actual 
costs, economic and environ- 


U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
Forest Service, 
Coronado National Forest. 
Tucson, AZ 

69 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


Design and Development Program 
National Endowment for the Arts 


Patch Barracks 
Stuttgart, West Germany 

Well-designed buildings pro- 
vide tangible benefits to the 
communities in which they are 
located. But when processes 
that encourage good design are 
integrated into the allocation 
and distribution of funds for 
these buildings, the benefits 
are multiplied immeasurably 
and perpetuated. The Massa- 
chusetts Council on the Arts 
sought to implement a proce- 
dural means to encourage good 
design throughout the state 
and, with the encouragement 
and financial support of the 
Design Arts Program of the 
National Endowment for the 
Arts, established its own 
Design and Development Pro- 
gram in 1984. 

Working closely with other 
state agencies, the Design and 
Development Program has 
developed a partnership that 
encompasses state government 
and local municipalities, serv- 
ing as a model for design activ- 
ism. Through its efforts to 
establish specific design poli- 
cies and procedures to be 
adopted by other state agen- 
cies, the Design and Develop- 
ment Program has the potential 
to influence the $2.2 billion 
that is authorized annually by 
the Commonwealth's develop- 
ment and finance agencies. 

The positive effects of the 
Design and Development Pro- 
gram are being felt throughout 
Massachusetts. Aesthetic con- 
siderations have been incorpo- 
rated into the state's bridge 
manual for the first time. A 
Community Design Assistance 
Program has assisted nine cities 
and towns throughout the state 
engaged in the revitalization of 
business districts. The Rural 
Design Assistance Program 
helps small towns to guide 
development and conserve 
their rural character. A design 
workshop for state agency 
directors has given these offi- 
cials the chance to learn more 
about design and to discuss the 
creation of design policies that 
could be adopted by their 
boards. And the Massachusetts 
Council on the Arts established 
the Governor's Design Awards 
Program to recognize and 
encourage excellence in design 
throughout the Common- 
wealth and heighten the state- 
wide awareness of the 
contribution that design makes 
to daily life. 

Although these are all wor- 
thy examples of the effective- 
ness of the Design and 
Development Program, its true 
contribution will be the lasting 
impact that the incorporation 
of good design practices, both 
practical and bureaucratic, will 
have on the quality of life in 


National Endowment for the 

Arts, Design Arts Program, 

Washington, DC 
Massachusetts Council on the 

Arts and Humanities, 

Boston, MA 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Department of Public Works, 

Boston, MA 

Security and defense consider- 
ations often mean effective but 
unappealing design results. A 
project designed to upgrade 
security at the Patch Barracks 
in Stuttgart, West Germany, 
however, proves that well- 
designed security measures 
can be both cost-effective and 
visually unobtrusive. In 
response to numerous terrorist 
attacks on U.S. personnel sta- 
tioned abroad, it was deter- 
mined that this barracks— the 
headquarters of U.S. European 
Command— needed additional 
security to thwart hostile 

While the primary concern 
was to ensure the safety of 
Patch Barracks' staff, the design 
solution also had to enhance 
the presence and international 
stature of the U.S. European 
Command in the host country. 
Instead of turning the barracks 
compound into a menacing for- 
tification, a system of barriers 
and impediments was devel- 
oped that achieved the neces- 
sary increase in security and 
ultimately improved the visual 
qualities of the compound. 

The central street near the 
headquarters was made into a 
pedestrian mall with discreet 

barriers preventing motorized 
access except through two eas- 
ily regulated control gates. The 
approach to the barracks was 
redesigned to prevent direct, 
frontal access to the compound 
and to accommodate a multiple 
lane control capability, alleviat- 
ing previous traffic congestion. 
Protecting the front guard- 
house is an array of curved, 
reinforced concrete barriers 
that are visually interesting. 
Their sober mission is softened 
by plantings of flowers, shrubs, 
and small trees that give them 
a human scale and blend them 
into the existing landscape. 

Innovative use of mate- 
rials allowed the improvements 
to be both effective and eco- 
nomical: the total cost was 
$300,000 less than the $1 mil- 
lion originally allotted for the 


U.S. Department of the Army, 
Engineer Division, Europe, 
Frankfurt, West Germany 

Brenner and Partners. 
Stuttgart, West Germany 

Max Jordan Bauunternehmung, 
Frankfurt, West Germany 

70 1988 Presidential Design Awards 


. . . Nowhere is good design more 
important than in transportation. When 
it comes to introducing aesthetic 
concerns into the complex process of 
creating and operating transportation 
facilities, the task is not always easy. 
Aesthetics is more than looks. 
Aesthetics includes enjoyment and 
stimulation and, in the case of 
transportation, the assurance of safety. 

Whether it's a historic train station or a 
modern airport or a spectacular bridge 
proving a link in our highway system, 
we will strive to keep quality design a 
high priority in transportation. 

Samuel K. Skinner 


U.S. Department of Transportation 


Fort McHenry Tunnel 
Baltimore, Maryland 

The Fort McHenry Tunnel is a 
remarkable achievement on 
several counts: it is the world's 
largest submerged tube tunnel 
designed for vehicular traffic; 
its construction allowed for the 
preservation of the surround- 
ing natural environment; and it 
spawned development that cre- 
ated some 1 4,000 jobs state- 
wide. A $750 million project, 
it was completed within the 
allotted time and well under 
cost projections, which ran as 

high as $ 1 billion. Such an 
achievement, both in engineer- 
ing and management, was 
made possible by close collabo- 
ration among planners, engi- 
neers, contractors, laborers, 
and a myriad of city, state, and 
federal officials throughout all 
phases of the design and con- 
struction process. 

The Fort McHenry Tunnel 
was designed to be the final 
link in 1-95, the East Coast's 
most important interstate sys- 
tem. Original plans had called 
for an eight-lane bridge span- 
ning the Baltimore Harbor, but 
this proposal was determined 
to be undesirable due to 
adverse environmental impact 
on adjacent areas, which 
include historic Fort McHenry 
and the residential community 
of Locust Point. The decision to 
construct a tunnel evolved out 
of numerous public hearings 
and local meetings. The realiza- 
tion of this solution entailed a 
complex engineering feat on a 
scale never previously under- 
taken by the National Interstate 
and Defense Highway System. 

The tunnel's alignment 
around Fort McHenry and 
below the shipping channels 
required the design of the 
world's first tunnel sections 
with both vertical and horizon- 
tal curvature. This alignment 
was instrumental in preserving 
the Locust Point peninsula. 
The environmental impact of 
the tunnel was further reduced 
by designing the ventilation 
building with an inconspicuous 
silhouette screened by plants 
and trees. The 3.5 million 
cubic yards of material dredged 
from the harbor during the 
tunnel's construction were put 
to creative use: 1 36 useable 
acres created from treated 
slurry will provide the site of a 

three-berth marine terminal 
and storage facility capable of 
handling 2.5 million tons of 
cargo annually. 

The lessons to be learned 
from the success of the Fort 
McHenry Tunnel are found in 
efficient planning, effective 
implementation, and close 
monitoring of all stages of both 
design and construction. More 
than 25 design reports were 
produced to help resolve engi- 
neering and construction prob- 
lems before they occurred, 
saving time and expense. Wage 
stabilization agreements 
between the Interstate Divi- 
sion for Baltimore County and 
the affiliated local union were 
struck prior to construction 
and were instrumental in keep- 
ing the project on schedule 
and under budget. Although 
1 08 acres of land had to be 
purchased to enable the con- 
struction, no residential prop- 
erty was affected. 

Since its opening in Novem- 
ber 1 985, the Fort McHenry 
Tunnel has maintained an aver- 
age daily traffic flow of 85,000 
vehicles (40,000 more than 
projected). The previous four- 
to-five-mile back-ups of idling 
cars and trucks have been 
eliminated and travel distance 
along the 1-95 corridor 
through Baltimore has been 
shortened by nine miles per 


U.S. Department of Transportation. 

Federal Highway Administration. 

Baltimore. MD 
City of Baltimore. Department 

of Transportation, 

Baltimore. MD 
Rummel. Klepper and Kahl, 

Baltimore. MD 

72 1988 Presidential Design Awards 




Bureau of Mines 

Lake Lynn Laboratory 
Fairchance, Pennsylvania 

The Lake Lynn Laboratory 
facility, completed in 1981, has 
provided the Bureau of Mines 
with an invaluable capability: 
to replicate and analyze fires 
and explosions in a simulated 
mine environment. This new 
underground complex is a 
state-of-the-art testing facility 
that can duplicate real-world 
mine conditions in a network 
of tunnels. The $10 million 
invested has yielded 
an unparalleled explosion 
research center that has now 
been in use for more than 
eight years. 

The laboratory's innovative 
design is the result of two fea- 
tures: a 7,500-foot network of 
tunnels, and two movable, 
explosion-proof bulkheads. By 
selectively positioning and 
opening and closing the bulk- 
heads in the tunnels, investiga- 
tors can imitate five different 
mine configurations and study 
almost every conceivable mine 
hazard in a controlled setting. 
Apart from saving thousands of 
dollars in experiment set-up 
costs, the experiments con- 
ducted at Lynn Lake have 
translated into a better under- 
standing of mine explosions 
and improved safety conditions 
throughout the nation's mines. 


U.S. Department of Interior, 

Bureau of Mines, 

Pittsburgh Research Center, 

Pittsburgh, PA 
Green International, 

Sewickley, PA 

Mine Roof Simulator 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

Developed to duplicate the 
complex pattern of stresses to 
which mine roof rib supports 
are subjected, the Mine Roof 
Simulator has proven to be a 
life-saving diagnostic tool. Roof 
collapse is the leading cause of 
death among miners, and con- 
trol of this ever-present danger 
is one of the most expensive 
engineering problems in 
mining operations. 

This computer-controlled 
simulator provides engineers 
with information about the 
behavior of mine supports and 
structural elements under 
stress. The simulator is cur- 
rently used to test new and 
existing support structures. 
Engineering advances gener- 
ated by the data collected here 
are expected to result in safer, 
more economical support sys- 
tems. While promoting safety 
is the primary objective of the 

simulator, it may also contrib- 
ute to making U.S-mined 
resources more competitive on 
the world market by helping to 
create new systems and 

Throughout the design and 
construction process, data were 
solicited from mining person- 
nel, government researchers, 
and engineers, ensuring that 
the $10 million invested in 
this project would yield life- 
saving information in the short 
run, and innovations with 
industry-wide implications for 
the future. 


U.S. Department of the Interior, 

Bureau of Mines, 

Pittsburgh Research Center, 

Pittsburgh, PA 
U.S. Department of the Interior, 

Bureau of Mines, 

Twin Cities Research Center, 

Minneapolis, MN 
MTS Systems. Minneapolis. MN 

7 3 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 


Enriched Information Signage 
Chicago, Illinois 


Red River Army Depot Steam Plant 
Texarkana, Texas 

As traffic volume steadily 
increases, so does the number 
of Americans killed or injured 
on the nation's roadways- 
more than three million inju- 
ries annually. A new 
interactive signage system, 
however, has demonstrated 
that it can substantially 
improve safety by clearly and 
quickly providing drivers with 
information that prevents acci- 
dents from occurring. 

The Enriched Information 
Signage project has avoided the 
pitfalls associated with other 
approaches to highway 
signage, such as flashing mes- 
sage signs which are plagued 
by poor visibility, mechanical 

malfunction, lack of clarity and 
consistency, and costly mainte- 
nance. The signs are placed at 
intervals preceding known 
areas of traffic congestion or 
ramps and corners obscured 
from view. By superimposing 
lighted symbols on standard 
sign faces, the "activated" signs 
are instantly, intuitively under- 
stood. Lighted dots reveal the 
location of traffic ahead, provid- 
ing the driver with ample time 
to adjust speed and direction. 
Single or multiple installa- 
tions of these signs are a signifi- 
cant and cost-effective 
improvement over existing 
painted signage. These new 
signs take literacy and language 
familiarity into consideration 
and are also reassuring to inex- 
perienced or elderly motorists. 
Their simple, direct graphics 
are readily understood and 
their content can be processed 
quickly. Where they have been 
installed, these signs have 
reduced accident rates and 
have made traffic flow more 
smoothly, safely, and 


U. S. Department of Transportation. 

Federal Highway Administration. 

Traffic Control Systems Division, 

Washington, DC 
City of Chicago, Department of 

Public Works, Chicago, IL 
Robert M. Wulkowicz. 

Chicago, IL 

Necessity, when combined 
with prudent design, can be 
the most successful mother of 
invention. The Red River 
Army Depot needed a replace- 
ment steam plant facility that 
did not rely on petroleum or 
natural gas as an energy 
source. After analyzing the 
functions of the depot and the 
requirements of the steam 
plant, engineers determined 
that the by-products of one 
could fill the needs of the 

The Red River Depot gener- 
ates a large volume of paper 
and wood products that was 
previously deposited in a land- 
fill. Designed to burn low-cost 
coal or the depot's scrap prod- 
ucts in any combination, the 
new plant is cost-effective, 
energy-efficient, and environ- 
mentally sound; most impor- 
tantly, it does not require a 

The benefits of this project 
have been significant. The new 
steam plant saved 398 million 
cubic feet of natural gas in its 
first year (a savings of over $ 1 
million), reduced the depot's 
annual energy consumption by 
19 percent, and generated an 
additional 54 billion BTUs per 
year from burning scrap. 
Twelve million gallons of water 
are saved annually, and 3,000 
tons of scrap wood are now 
burned instead of buried. The 
plant's emissions meet clean 
air standards, and landfill prob- 
lems have been eliminated. 
The project was designed and 
constructed in eight years and 
was completed for $1.3 million 
under budget. 


U.S. Department of the Army. 
Corps of Engineers. Fort 
Worth District. Fort Worth. TX 
Pope Engineers. New York, NY 
Richard Stine. Atlanta. GA 

74 1988 Presidential Design Awards 



Willow Creek Dam 
Heppner, Oregon 


Federal Construction Council 
Washington, DC 

Completed in 1983, the Wil- 
low Creek Dam has made sig- 
nificant contributions to dam 
construction. The first concrete 
gravity dam to be fabricated 
entirely from roller-compacted 
concrete ("rollcrete"), its inno- 
vative design exploited the 
properties of rollcrete, resulting 
in a structure that was not only 
cheaper to construct but also 

One design innovation was 
the configuration of pre-cast 
concrete panels that line the 
inside face of the dam; the new 
arrangement required thinner 
and fewer panels, saving an 
estimated $665,000. The sec- 
ond, more critical innovation, 
was the decision to use 
rollcrete. At about $45 per 
cubic yard cheaper than con- 
ventional cement (because of a 
higher content of gravel fill), 
this material presented an out- 
standing value for the 400,000 
cubic yards of cement that 
went into the construction of 
the dam. When cured, rollcrete 
is actually stronger than con- 
ventional concrete and can be 
put in place more quickly with 

standard earth-moving 

By using this new material, 
the Army Corps of Engineers 
saved nearly $1 1 million from 
the original budget estimate of 
$25 million. While protecting 
the area from flooding, the dam 
has also created new recrea- 
tional areas without any 
adverse impact on the natural 
environment. The successful 
use of rollcrete in the Willow 
Creek Dam has proven the via- 
bility of the new material and 
may indeed influence new 
dam construction throughout 
the world. 

The federal government 
spends almost $40 billion 
annually on the design and 
construction of federal facili- 
ties. But no single agency is 
responsible for the design and 
construction of these facilities. 
Responsibility is decentralized 
among more than a dozen 
agencies. Such decentralization 
can lead to costly duplication of 
effort, particularly in the areas 
of design, construction technol- 
ogy, and construction manage- 
ment. Seeking to minimize 
federal inefficiency, several 
agencies sought a mechanism 
to exchange information and 
share common design and con- 
struction problems. In 1953, 
they helped formed the Federal 
Construction Council (FCC) as 
an activity of the Building 
Research Board of the National 
Research Council. 

During its 36-year history, 
the FCC has addressed almost 
every aspect of federal design 
and construction by sponsoring 
innovative research studies and 
organizing symposiums and 
workshops. The FCC has con- 
ducted studies on topics such 
as building diagnostics, quality 
control, post-occupancy evalua- 
tion, cost estimating, construc- 
tion contracts, and computer 
graphics. Acknowledging the 
broad applicability of this effort, 
the private sector and federal 


U.S. Department of the Army, 
Corps of Engineers. 
Walla Walla District, 
Walla Walla, WA 

agencies have adopted many of 
the recommendations con- 
tained in these studies. 

Today, the FCC is supported 
by 14 agencies which it helps 
to streamline their design and 
construction process and 
improve their construction 
technology. The result is 
greater management efficiency 
and better quality, innovative 
federal facilities. 


General Services Administration, 
Public Buildings Service, 
Washington, DC 
National Aeronautics and Space 
Facilities Management Office, 
Washington, DC 
National Endowment for the 
Arts, Design Arts Program, 
Washington, DC 
National Science Foundation, 
Division of Mechanics, 
Structures, and Materials 
Engineering, Washington, DC 
Smithsonian Institution, Office 
of Facilities Services, 
Washington, DC 
U.S. Department of the Air 
Force, Directorate of 
Engineering and Services, 
Washington, DC 
U.S. Department of the Army, 
Office of the Chief of 
Engineers, Washington, DC 
U.S. Department of Commerce. 
National Institute of Standards 
and Technology, Center for 
Building Technology, 
Gaithersburg. MD 
U.S Department of Energy, 
Office of Project and Facilities 
Management, Washington, DC 
U.S. Department of the Navy, 
Naval Facilities Engineering 
Command, Washington, DC 
U.S. Department of State, 
Office of Foreign Buildings 
Operations, Washington, DC 
U.S. Postal Service, Facilities 

Department, Washington, DC 
U.S. Public Health Service, 
Office of Management, 
Washington. DC 
U.S. Department of Veterans 
Affairs. Office of Facilities, 
Washington, DC 

7 5 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 

Photo Credits 


Timothy Hursley (large photo] 


William Clark, National Park Service 


Ben E. Watkins 


Ben E. Watkins 






Carol M. Highsmith 


Carol M. Highsmith 


Ken Pelka 


R. Greg Hursley, Inc. 


Gary Layda 


Arteaga photos 


Steve Rosenthal 


Harlan Hambright 


Rick Alexander and Associates, Inc. 


Ed Hershberger 


Peter Aaron/Esto 


Christopher Disse ( left) 


Gabriel Benzur, Inc. (right) 


Cymie Payne 


John W Bright (right) 


Greg Pease 

76 1988 Presidential Design Awards 




By Design Discipline 


Alewife Station and Garage, Cambridge, MA 55 

Bear Valley Visitor Center, Point Reyes, CA 62 

Building By Design Program, Illinois Arts Council, Chicago, IL 54 

* Delaware Aqueduct Renovation, Lackawaxen, PA, and 

Minisink Ford, NY 26 

Fifth Street Renovation, Santa Monica, CA 63 

Housing for the Elderly, Upper Eastern Shore, MD 58 

Nashville Union Station, Nashville, TN 52 

Navy/Marine Corps Reserve Training Center, Buckley ANG Base, 

Aurora, CO 51 

*0'Hare Extension Rapid Transit Line, Chicago, IL 18 

Recreational Center, Karlsruhe, West Germany 62 

St. Louis Union Station, St. Louis, MO 53 

Technology Center, Gaborone, Republic of Botswana 63 

Treasury Building Restoration Program, Washington, DC 50 

U.S. Court of Appeals/Federal Building, Pasadena, CA 64 

U.S. Embassy, Colombo, Sri Lanka 61 

U.S. Embassy, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 60 

U.S. Post Office, Kings Mountain, NC 57 

* Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington, DC 10 

Waterfront Garages, Charleston, SC 64 


* East Huntington Bridge, Huntington, WV, and Proctorville, OH 28 

Enriched Information Signage, Chicago, IL 74 

Federal Construction Council, Washington, DC 75 

Fort McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD 72 

•International Ultraviolet Explorer Program, Greenbelt, MD 12 

Lake Lynn Laboratory, Fairchance, PA 73 

Mine Roof Simulator, Pittsburgh, PA 73 

Red River Army Depot Steam Plant, Texarkana, TX 74 

'Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Tampa-St. Petersburg, FL 24 

Willow Creek Dam, Heppner, OR 75 


* American Furniture from the Kaufman Collection, Washington, DC . . 17 

Army Trainer Magazine, Fort Eustis, VA 35 

Books of Postage Stamps, 1985-1987, Washington, DC 48 

Environmental Protection Agency Graphic Standards System, 

Washington, DC 34 

Examination Announcement Brochure, McLean, VA 40 

John Frazee Exhibition, Washington, DC 39 

General Accounting Office Visual Communication Standards, 

Washington, DC 38 

Glen Haven Exhibit, Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI 43 

International Exhibits, USIA Worldwide 41 

International Paper Shows, USIA Worldwide 41 

Gaston Lachaise Exhibition, Washington, DC 39 

Maps and Minds Exhibition, Reston, VA 44 

Minerals Management Service Logotype, Vienna, VA 45 

♦National Gallery of Art Exhibition Graphics, Washington, DC 17 

National Portrait Gallery Permanent Collection Reinstallation, 

Washington, DC 39 

* Piranesi: Early Architectural Fantasies, Washington, DC 17 

Resource Protection Exhibits, Yosemite National Park, CA 36 

Statue of Liberty Centennial Exhibit, Liberty Island, NY 47 

Statue of Liberty Centennial Publications, Liberty Island, NY 46 

U.S. Air Service in World War I: Final Report and Tactical History, 

Washington, DC 43 

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Sign Standards Program, 

Washington, DC 42 

U.S. Geological Survey Poster Catalogs and One-Color Publications, 

Reston, VA 37 

What Works: Research About Teaching and Learning, 

Washington, DC 40 

Wine: Celebration and Ceremony, New York, NY 45 

7 7 1 988 Presidential Desk;n Awards 

Industrial Design 

Competitive Edge Program, The University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, MI 48 

Interior Design 

Council of Federal Interior Designers, Washington, DC 54 

Mount St. Helens Visitor Center, Castle Rock, WA 59 

Restoration of the Secretary of the Navy's Office, Washington, DC ... . 56 
*"The Treasure Houses of Britain: Five Hundred Years of Private Patron- 
age and Art Collecting," Washington, DC 16 

Landscape Architecture 

•Boxley Valley Land-Use Plan, Buffalo National River, Harrison, AR . . . . 22 

Buffalo Point Campground, Buffalo National River, Harrison, AR 68 

Eagles Roost Area Bank Stabilization, Missouri River, SD 68 

Fort Custer National Cemetery, Fort Custer, MI 66 

Patch Barracks, Stuttgart, West Germany 70 

Visual Prioritization Process, General Hitchock Highway, Tucson, AZ . 69 

Urban Design and Planning 

Arts on the Line Program, Cambridge and Somerville, MA 67 

Design and Development Program, Massachusetts Council on the Arts 

and Humanities, Boston, MA 70 

* Pennsylvania Avenue Plan, Washington, DC 20 

* Southwest Corridor Project, Boston, MA 14 

* Recipient of a Presidential Award for Design Excellence 

78 1988 Presidential Design Awards 




By Federal Department and Agency 

Environmental Protection Agency 

Graphic Standards System, Washington, DC 34 

Farm Credit Administration 

Examination Announcement Brochure, McLean, VA 40 

General Accounting Office 

Visual Communication Standards, Washington, DC 38 

General Services Administration 

Restoration of the Secretary of the Navy's Office, Washington, DC ... . 56 

U.S. Court of Appeals/Federal Building, Pasadena, CA 64 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

* International Ultraviolet Explorer Program, Greenbelt, MD 12 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Building By Design Program, Illinois Arts Council, Chicago, 1L 54 

Competitive Edge Program, The University of Michigan, 

Ann Arbor, MI 48 

Design and Development Program, Massachusetts Council on the Arts 

and Humanities, Boston, MA 70 

* National Gallery of Art 

American Furniture from the Kaufman Collection, Washington, DC . . 17 

Exhibition Graphics, Washington, DC 17 

Piranesi: Early Architectural Fantasies, Washington, DC 17 

"The Treasure Houses of Britain: Five Hundred Years of Private Patron- 
age and Art Collecting," Washington, DC 16 

Office of Personnel Management 

Council of Federal Interior Designers, Washington, DC 54 

Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation 

* Pennsylvania Avenue Plan, Washington, DC 20 

Smithsonian Institution 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum of Decorative Arts and Design 

Wine: Celebration and Ceremony, New York, NY 45 

National Portrait Gallery 

John Frazee Exhibition, Washington, DC 39 

Gaston Lachaise Exhibition, Washington, DC 39 

Permanent Collection Reinstallation, Washington, DC 30 

U.S. Agency for International Development 

Technology Center, Gaborone, Republic of Botswana 63 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Forest Service 

Mount St. Helens Visitor Center, Castle Rock, WA 59 

Visual Prioritization Process, General Hitchock Highway, Tucson, AZ . 69 

U.S. Department of the Army 

Army Trainer Magazine, Fort Eustis, VA 35 

Corps of Engineers 

Eagles Roost Area Bank Stabilization, Missouri River, SD 68 

Patch Barracks, Stuttgart, West Germany 70 

Recreational Center, Karlsruhe, West Germany 62 

Red River Army Depot Steam Plant, Texarkana, TX 74 

Sign Standards Program, Washington, DC 42 

Willow Creek Dam, Heppner, OR 75 

79 1 988 Presidential Design Awards 

U.S. Department of Education 

What Works: Research About Teaching and Learning, 
Washington, DC 

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 

Fifth Street Renovation, Santa Monica, CA 

Housing for the Elderly, Upper Eastern Shore, MD 

Nashville Union Station, Nashville, TN 

St. Louis Union Station, St. Louis, MO 

Waterfront Garages, Charleston, SC 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Mines 

Lake Lynn Laboratory, Fairchance, PA 

Mine Roof Simulator, Pittsburgh, PA 

Minerals Management Service 

Logotype, Vienna, VA 

Geological Survey 

Poster Catalogs and One-Color Publications, Reston, VA 

Maps and Minds Exhibition, Reston, VA 

National Park Service 

Bear Valley Visitor Center, Point Reyes, CA 

*Boxley Valley Land-Use Plan, Buffalo National River, Harrison, AR , 

Buffalo Point Campground, Buffalo National River, Harrison, AR . . 
•Delaware Aqueduct Renovation, Lackawaxen, PA, and 

Minisink Ford, NY 

Glen Haven Exhibit, Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI 

Resource Protection Exhibits, Yosemite National Park, CA 

Statue of Liberty Centennial Exhibit, Liberty Island, NY 

Statue of Liberty Centennial Publications, Liberty Island, NY 
•Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington, DC+ 

U.S. Department of the Navy 

Navy/Marine Corps Reserve Training Center, Buckley ANG Base, 
Aurora, CO 









U.S. Department of State 

Federal Construction Council, Washington, DC + + 75 

U.S. Embassy, Colombo, Sri Lanka 61 

U.S. Embassy, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 60 

U.S. Department of Transportation 

Federal Highway Administration 

•East Huntington Bridge, Huntington, WV, and Proctorville, OH 28 

Enriched Information Signage, Chicago, IL 74 

Fort McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD 72 

* Sunshine Skyway Bridge, Tampa-St. Petersburg, FL 24 

Urban Mass Transportation Administration 

Alewife Station and Garage, Cambridge, MA 55 

Arts on the Line Program, Cambridge and Somerville, MA 67 

•O'Hare Extension Rapid Transit Line, Chicago, IL 18 

•Southwest Corridor Project, Boston, MA 14 

U.S. Department of the Treasury 

Treasury Building Restoration Program, Washington, DC 50 

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs 

Fort Custer National Cemetery, Fort Custer, MI 66 

U.S. Government Printing Office 

U.S. Air Service in World War 1: Final Report and Tactical History, 
Washington, DC 43 

U.S. Information Agency 

International Exhibits, Worldwide 41 

International Paper Shows, Worldwide 41 

U.S. Postal Service 

Books of Postage Stamps, 1 985- 1 987, Washington, DC 48 

Post Office, Kings Mountain, NC 57 

* Recipient of a Presidential Award for Design Excellence 

+ Supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts 
+ +Supported by 13 other federal agencies 

80 1988 Presidential Design Awards